Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), previously known as retrolental fibroplasia (RLF)
- If 100% O2 given to Preterm.
- Proliferation dilatation and tortuous vessels in Vitreous.
- 100% babies are blind.
Severe ROP - tractional retinal detachment.
I - Hypoxic demarcation line
II - Ridge formation
III - Neovascularization
IV - SubTotal Retinal detachment
V - Total RD
In a preterm - protocol to follow -
- Look for peripheral retina (Indirect ophthalmoscopy at regular intervals) - Do Cryosurgery if Vascular proliferation.
- 1st Ophthalmoscopy at 32-34 wks or 4-6wks after birth (preterm baby) , whichever is early.
- Then at every 2wks , till Retina looks like that of term baby.
ROP + (ROP PLUS ) : Posterior retinal vessels are also involved.
Treatment : Cryotherapy , Laser Photocoagulation , Vit. E therapy.
Severe - may require Retinal Reattachment Surgery.
Risk is HIGH with LBW and ELBW ( <1kg birth weight -> 60-70% have ROP)