0 Causes of renal papillary necrosis


S – Sickle cell anaemia
O – Obstruction
D – Diabetes mellitus
A – Analgesic nephropathy.

0 Hypertensive hemorrhage-site

Q.Which of the following is the commonest location of  hypertensive hemorrhage?
1 Pons.

Ans: 3 Putamen...
2nd MC site is Thalamus.

0 Rumpel leede test

A tourniquet test (also known as a Rumpel-Leede Capillary-Fragility Test or simply a capillary fragility test) determines capillary fragility.

It is a clinical diagnostic method to determine a patient's haemorrhagic tendency. It assesses fragility of capillary walls and is used to identify thrombocytopenia (a reduced platelet count).

The test is defined by the WHO as one of the necessary requisites for diagnosis of Dengue fever.

Q.A positive Rumpel leede test is suggestive of
a. brucellosis
b. lyme's disease
c. rocky mountain fever
d. erysipelas

Ans: C..RMSF

0 Earliest complication of ostomy

Q.Early postoperative complication of ileostomy in the post-operative period:

a. Obstruction
b. Necrosis
c. Diarrhea
d. Prolapse

ANS: Necrosis

0 Pseudomembraneous enterocolitis

Medical mnemonic for drugs causing pseudomembraneous enterocolitis is :


T – Tetracycline
A – Ampicillin
L – Lincomycin
C – Clindamycin

MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

1 Carpal tunnel syndrome

Mnemonic for causes of Carpal tunnel syndrome is 

 ARMPIT (to inlude idiopathic)
A – Acromegaly
R – Rheumatiod arthritis
M – Myxoedema
P – Pregnancy
I – Idiopathic
T – Trauma (occupational)

0 Layers of scrotum

Mnemonic for layers of scrotum is

“Some Dangerous Englishmen Call It Testis” or ”Some Dirty Englishmen Called It Testis”

The layers of scrotum from superficial to deep are:
S – Skin
D – Dartos
E – External spermatic fascia
C- Cremasteric fascia
I – Internal spermatic fascia

0 Autosomal recessive disorders

Mnemonic for autosomal recessive disorders :


A – Albinism.
B – Beta thalessemia.
C – Cystic Fibrosis.
D – Deafness
E – Emphysema (alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency).
F – Friedrichs ataxia
G – Gauchers disease
H – Homocystinuria, Hemochromatosis.

5 X linked recessive disorders

X linked recessive disorders

Be Wise, Fools GOLD Heeds Silly Hope

B – Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia
W – Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
F – Fabry’s syndrome
G – G6PD deficiency
O – Ocular albinism
L – Lesch Nyhan syndrome , Lowe Syndrome
D – Dystrophy (Duchenne’s, and Becker’s)
H, S – Hunter’s Syndrome
H – Hemophilia A & B

MC X-linked recessive disorder is Duchenne's Muscular dystrophy.

0 Loosers zone

Q.Loosers zone is seen in
a. Osteopetrosis
b. Osteomalacia
c. Osteoarthritis
d. osteoporosis

Ans: B

0 Whipple's disease

It is a rare, systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei.


Whipple's disease primarily causes malabsorption but may affect any part of the body including the heart, lungs, brain, joints, skin, and the eyes. Weight loss, diarrhea, joint pain, and arthritis are common presenting symptoms, but the presentation can be highly variable and approximately 15% of patients do not have these classic signs and symptoms. Whipple's disease is significantly more common in men, with 87% of the patients being male. When recognized and treated, Whipple's disease can usually be cured with long-term antibiotic therapy; untreated the disease is ultimately fatal.

0 Anatomy AI 2011

All are seen in injury to common peroneal nerve except?
A. Loss of sensation over sole
B. Foot drop
C. Injury to neck of fibula
D. Loss of dorsiflexion of toe

Answer: Loss of sensation over sole

All of the following are pneumatic bones except?
A. Frontal
B. Ethmoid
C. Mandible
D. Maxilla

Answer : Mandible

Which of the following is not supplied by the anterior division of mandibular nerve (V3) ?
A. Temporalis
B. Medial pterygoid
C. Lateral pterygoid
D. Masseter

Answer: Medial pterygoid

Deoxygenated blood is not seen in
A. Pulmonary artery
B. Umbilical artery
C. Umbilical vein
D. Renal vein
Answer – Umbilical vein

0 Onodi cells and Haller cells

Onodi cells and Haller cells are associated with the following structures respectively?
A. Optic nerve and Orbital floor
B. Optic nerve and Internal carotid artery
C. Internal carotid artery and Optic nerve
D. Orbital floor and Internal carotid artery

Answer : Optic nerve and orbital floor

0 Pain sensation from the ethmoid sinus

Pain sensation from the ethmoid sinus is carried by :
A. Frontal nerve
B. Lacrimal nerve
C. Nasociliary nerve
D. Infraorbital nerve

Answer: Nasociliary nerve

0 Trunk of brachial plexus (AI 2011)

Which among the following is a branch from the trunk of brachial plexus?
A. Suprascapular nerve
B. Long thoracic nerve
C. Anterior thoracic nerve
D. Nerve to subclavius
Answer : Suprascapular nerve and Nerve to subclavius

0 Development of diapragm

AI 2011
Q.Diaphragm develops from all except:
A. Septum transversum
B. Dorsal mesocardium
C. Pleuroperitoneal membrane
D. Cervical myotomes

Ans: B..

0 Posterior relations of head of pancreas (AI2011)

Q.Posterior relations of head of pancreas are all except?
A. Common bile duct
B. First part of duodenum
C. Right crus of diaphragm
D. Inferior vena cava
Ans: B.. First part of duodenum



a. sarcoma botryoides
b. vaginal adenocarcinoma
c.leiomyoma uterus

Ans: A. sarcoma botryoides = Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.
• An uncommon, highly malignant vaginal tumor consisting of embryonal rhabdomyoblasts in infants & children.

• The tumor cells are small, have oval nuclei, & have small protrusions of cytoplasm from one end (tennis-racket cells)

0 Michaelis-Gutmann bodies

Q. Michaelis-Gutmann bodies are seen in :
a. Calcifying epithilioma
b. Malakoplakia
c. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
d. Nephrocalcinosis

Ans: B. Malakoplakia
Michaelis-Gutmann bodies (M-G bodies) are concentrically layered basophilic inclusions found in the urinary tract. They are 2 to 10 μm in diameter, and are thought to represent remnants of phagosomes mineralized by iron and calcium deposits.
M-G bodies are a pathognomonic feature of malakoplakia, an inflammatory condition that affects the genitourinary tract.

1 Frasier syndrome

Frasier syndrome

is XY females with gonadal dysgenesis, progressive glomerulopathy (FSGS), and a significant risk of gonadoblastoma.

Mutations in the donor splice site in intron 9 of the Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene have been shown to cause Frasier syndrome and are distinct from WT1 exon mutations associated with Denys-Drash syndrome.

The WT1 gene, which is essential for normal kidney and gonadal development, encodes a zinc finger transcription factor.

 It is proposed that the clinical definition of Frasier syndrome should be broadened to include 46,XX females with normal genital development and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with a WT1 intron 9 donor splice site mutation. Nephrologists need to consider the possibility of this heritable syndrome in evaluation of females with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and to consider their risk for gonadal malignancy, as well as the risk for kidney disease, gonadal dysgenesis, and malignancy in their offspring.

Do not confuse it with Fraser syndrome (AR congenital inheritance): It is characterized by developmental defects including cryptophthalmos (where the eyelids fail to separate in each eye), and malformations in the genitals (such as micropenis, cryptorchidism or clitoromegaly). Congenital malformations of the nose, ears, larynx and renal system, as well as mental retardation, manifest occasionally.  Syndactyly (fused fingers or toes) has also been noted in some cases.

0 Denys-Drash syndrome and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

Denys-Drash syndrome is a syndrome characterized by the following conditions:
  • gonadal dysgenesis
  • nephropathy
  • Wilms tumor

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder present at birth characterized by an increased risk of childhood cancer and certain features.

Five common features used to define BWS are: macroglossia, macrosomia - (birth weight and length >90th percentile), midline abdominal wall defects (omphalocele, umbilical hernia, diastasis recti), ear creases or ear pits, and neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar after birth).

Children with BWS are much more likely (~600 times more) than other children to develop certain childhood cancers, particularly Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma) and hepatoblastoma.

0 Pawn ball megakaryocytes

Q. Pawn ball megakaryocytes are characteristic of:

1.myelodysplastic syndrome.
2.idiopathic trombocytopenic purpura.
3.thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
4.chloramphenicol toxicity.

Ans : 1. MDS(myelodysplastic syndrome)
These are very small megakaryocytes.
Normally Megakaryocytes are very large and never seen in P/S.

0 Hamodalysis associated amyloid

Q. Hamodalysis associated amyloid is deposited in
a. Synovium
b. Liver
c. Kidney
d. Tongue

Ans: A.. Synovium.
The inability of both cuprophane dialysis
membranes to filter, and renal failure patients to catabolize
the plasma protein Beta-2 microglobulin, results in the accumulation
and subsequent conversion of this substance to
amyloid fibrils. Amyloid is deposited predominantly in the
musculoskeletal system in synovial, articular and periarticular
tissue, resulting in a variety of conditions.

0 Pearson syndrome

Pearson syndrome is a mitochondrial disease characterized by
sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction.

It is usually fatal in infancy. The few patients who survive into adulthood often develop symptoms of Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

It is caused by a deletion in mitochondrial DNA. Pearson syndrome is very rare, less than hundred cases have been reported in medical literature worldwide.

2 Amyloidosis of spleen

Types of Amyloidosis of spleen
  • Sago spleen 
  • Lardaceous spleen

SoFt  LiPs
Sago spleen - Amyloid deposits in lymph Follicles
Lardaceous spleen - Amyloid deposits in the Red Pulp

Amyloid deposition in lymph follicles --" sago spleen“
Amyloid deposition in the red pulp--" lardaceous spleen"

0 Action of medial and lateral pterygoid muscles

Medial pterygoid closes your mouth - When you say "M" you have to close your mouth.

Lateral pterygoid opens your mouth - When you say "L" you have to open your mouth.

0 Chilaiditi syndrome

Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare condition when pain occurs due to transposition of a loop of large intestine (usually transverse colon) in between the diaphragm and the liver, visible on plain abdominal X-ray or chest X-ray
Normally this causes no symptoms, and this is called Chilaiditi's sign. The sign can be permanently present, or sporadically. This anatomical variant is sometimes mistaken for the more serious condition of having air under the diaphragm (pneumoperitoneum) which is usually an indication of bowel perforation. This may lead to unnecessary surgical interventions.
Chilaiditi syndrome refers only to complications in the presence of Chilaiditi's sign. These include abdominal pain, torsion of the bowel (volvulus) or shortness of breath.

Chest X-ray showing obvious Chilaiditi's sign, or presence of gas in the right colic angle between the liver and right hemidiaphragm.

0 Hamman's syndrome and sign

Hamman's syndrome is a syndrome of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema (air in the subcutaneous tissues of the skin) and pneumomediastinum (air in the mediastinum, the center of the chest cavity), sometimes associated with pain.
Hamman's syndrome can cause Hamman's sign.
The syndrome is caused by alveolar rupture and can be seen post partum.
It most commonly occurs in young women.

A CT scan showing air in the mediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema, which can result in Hamman's syndrome.

Hamman's sign (rarely, Hammond's sign or Hammond's crunch) is a crunching, rasping sound, synchronous with the heartbeat, heard over the precordium in spontaneous mediastinal emphysema produced by the heart beating against air-filled tissues.
 It has been described as a series of precordial crackles that correlate with the heart beat and not the respirations.

Hamman's crunch is caused by pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium, and is associated with tracheobronchial injury due to trauma, medical procedures (e.g., bronchoscopy) or proximal pulmonary bleb rupture. It is commonly seen in Boerhaave syndrome.(also here there is Mackler triad)

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamman's_sign

1 Tree in bud

Q. Most common cause of tree in bud appearance on HRCT chest is?
a. Endobronchial spread TB
b. Haematogenously spread TB
c. Pneumocystis Carnii
d. RSV

Ans : A.. endobronchial spread TB

NOTE: similar ques was asked in aiims nov. 2010 where the difference was that the patient had undergone bone marrow transplant and then showed this Tree In Bud appearance, so then the answer will be Pneumocystis carnii.

0 Circadian rhythm

Q.Circadian rhythm by?

a.paraventricular nucleus
b.suprachiasmatic nucleus
c.pred.optic nucleus
d.arcuate nucleus


0 Loop Diuretic

Q.Site of action of loop diuretics?
a.Na-K channel inhibition
b.Na-K-2Cl channel inhibition
c.decreases sodium retention
d.increases ADH

Ans : B

0 Kidney excretion

Q. Drug exclusively excreted by Kidney?





ANS : A.. Gallamine

MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Carcinoid Tumor

Q.multiple lesions in liver,diarrhea and flushing seen in a patient. what is the most probable part where the lesion is located?
d.small bowel

ANS : D.. Small Bowel.
Unlike carcinoid tumours arising in
other parts of the intestinal tract, carcinoid tumour of the
appendix rarely gives rise to metastases

0 Leprosy

Q. leprosy is seen in?

Ans : D
Leprous granulomas are known to occur frequently in
liver, spleen, testes but are rarely seen in kidneys

0 Wilson's Disease

Q.True in Wilson's disease?
a.high plasma copper
b.low urinary copper
c.high copper levels in liver
d.high ceruloplasmin

Ans : C
Laboratory tests measure the amount of copper in the blood, urine, and liver tissue. Most people with Wilson disease will have a lower than normal level of copper in the blood and a lower level of corresponding ceruloplasmin, a protein that carries copper in the bloodstream. In cases of acute liver failure caused by Wilson disease, the level of blood copper is often higher than normal. A 24-hour urine collection will show increased copper in the urine in most patients who display symptoms. A liver biopsy—a procedure that removes a small piece of liver tissue—can show if the liver is retaining too much copper. The analysis of biopsied liver tissue with a microscope detects liver damage, which often shows a pattern unique to Wilson disease.

0 Resistance to acyclovir

Q.Resistance to acyclovir is treated with?


Ans: A--Fosarnet

0 Sustenticulum tali

Q.Tendon passing below Sustenticulum tali is
a. Tibialis posterior
b. Tibialis anterior
c. Flexor Digitorum longus
d. Flexor Hallucis longus

Ans: D
Flexor Digitorum longus crosses medial surface of Sustenticulum tali .

Q.Tendon attachments on Sustenticulum tali :
a. Tibialis posterior
b. Tibialis anterior
c. Flexor Digitorum longus
d. Flexor Hallucis longus

Ans: A

0 Facts about 4th nerve

Q. which of the following is not true about trochlear nerve
a. has longest intracranial course
b. supplies ipsilateral sup. oblique
c. arise from dorsal aspect
d. enters orbit through sup. orbital fissure outside annulus of zinn

here answer clearly is option B because 4th nerve supplies contralateral sup. oblique..

Thus in AIIMS and ALL INDIA ans. for the longest inracranial course is 4th nerve only

0 Ultrasound Markers

Ultrasound Markers/ Soft markers of chromosome abnormality

  1. Nuchal thickning
  2. Hyperechoic bowel
  3. Renal Pyelectasis
  4. Intra-cardiac echogenic foci
  5. Choroid plexus cysts

Denotes possibilities of fetal anomaly.

0 Intercostal nerve

Typical intercostal nerves : T3-6 only

because they supply only the intercostal spaces. Rest are also involved in other areas besides intercostal supply.

0 Fordyce

Fox-Fordyce disease is an infrequently occurring chronic pruritic papular eruption that localizes to areas where apocrine glands are found.

Fordyce's spots are small, painless, raised, pale, red or white spots or bumps 1 to 3 mm in diameter that may appear on the shaft of the penis or on the labia, as well as the inner surface (retromolar mucosa) and vermilion border of the lips of the face. They are common in men and women of all ages.The spots are a form of ectopic sebaceous gland: normally, sebaceous glands are only found in association with a hair follicle.

0 Layers of skin

Innermost layer  of epidermis?

S.germinatum = S.basale

0 Spores

1. Ascospores
2. Basidiospores
3. Zygospores
1. Arthospores
2. Blastospores
3. Chlamydospores
4. Micro n Macroconidia
5. Sporangiospores

0 Sexual Spore

Which of the following is a sexual spore?
a. Ascospore
b. Arthrospore
c. Blastospore
d. Sporangiospore

ans: A ascospore

2 Salt Split in Skin

Immunofluorescence in salt split zone-

In Roof of salt split cavity:
eg. Bullous Pemphigoid , herpes gestationis , cicatrical pemphigoid , Linear IgA dermatosis.

In Floor of salt split cavity:
eg. EBA , EBD , BLE.

MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Salt split zone immunofluorescence

Immunofluorescence in floor of salt split cavity is seen in A/E:
a. EBA
b. EBD
c. BLE
d. LAD

ans: D linear IgA dermatosis
explanation: In option D Immunofluorescence is seen in roof not floor of salt split cavity.
Salt split occurs at Lamina lucida.

0 Novobiocin resistant CONS

Q.Novobiocin resistant CONS is :
A. Strep.Viridans
B. Staph. aureus
©. Staph epidermidis
D. Staph saprophyticus

ans: D
explanation-- A,B are not CONS and all CONS except Staph saprophyticus are novobiocin susceptive.
Novobiocin is also known as albamycin or cathomycin.

0 Cause of Dementia (2nd MC)

(2nd MC cause)  - Multi Infarct Dementia.
1st MC is Alzheimer' 

0 APGAR score

components SHIRT:

Skin color: blue or pink
Heart rate: below 100 or over 100
Irritability (response to stimulation): none, grimace or cry
Respirations: irregular or good
Tone (muscle): some flexion or active

0 Extraocular muscles: movements

"ObliqLiques cause lateral rotation of eyeball":
Obliques cause lateral, all other rectii are medial rotators of the eyeball.

Action of the obliques is opposite to their names.

Action of the rectii is rightly fitting to their names.

Both superiors cause intorsion and both inferiors cause extorsion

0 L4 landmark

"B4U" [before you]:

Bifurcation of aorta

2 Vitamin Toxicity

Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)

0 Head circumference with age

Remember 3, 9, and multiples of 5:

Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm

0 WAGR syndrome

WAGR syndrome: components WAGR

Wilm's tumor
Gential abnormalities
Mental Retardation

2 Ataxia-Telangiectasia

common sign AT:

0 Rotator cuff muscles

"The SITS muscles":
Clockwise from top:
Teres minor
A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he SITS out for the rest of the game, and then gets sent to the minor leagues.

0 Ossification centers of the elbow

C - Capitellum
R - Radial head
I - Internal (medial epicondyle)
T - Trochlea
O - Olecranon
E - External (lateral epicondyle)
These appear at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 years of age in order and go away two years later

0 Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation

"Water under the bridge":
The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery.

Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus.

0 Rheumatic fever

 Jones 5 major criteria SPACE:

Subcutaneous nodules
Erythema Marginatum

0 Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

Nucleus Tractus Solitarius i.e NTS

N- 9th nerve
T- 10th nerve
S- 7th nerve

0 Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels

Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12
Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10
Vena cava = 8 letters = T8

0 Internal iliac artery: posterior branch


Posterior branch
Lateral sacral
Superior gluteal

0 Bartonella

B.Bacilliformis---- oraya fever(sandfly as vector),
B.Quintana-------- trench fever(louse born),
B.Henselae------- cat-scratch disease.


MC mode of murder with Hyoid bone fracture is THROTTLING

MC finding in neck in THROTTLING is Contusion of Neck Muscles ( not HYOID bone fracture)

0 Lithium toxicity (aipg2011)

Q.Which of the following antihypertensive drugs is contraindicated in a patient on Lithium in order to prevent toxicity?
A. Diuretics
B. Beta blockers
C. Calcium channel blockers
D. Clonidine

ans : A. diuretics

0 Blount’s disease(AIPG 2011)

Q.Blount’s disease is:
A. Genu valgum
B. Genu varum
C. Genu recurvatum
D. Menisceal injury

Ans : B. Genu varum

0 Superior oblique palsy (aipg2011)

Q.Damage to Superior oblique nerve causes diplopia:
A. Horizontal and downward
B. Vertical and downward
C. Horizontal and upward
D. Vertical and upward

Ans : B
Injury to the trochlear nerve cause weakness of downward eye movement with consequent vertical diplopia (double vision). The affected eye drifts upward relative to the normal eye, due to the unopposed actions of the remaining extraocular muscles.
As would be expected, the diplopia gets worse when the affected eye looks toward the nose – the contribution of the superior oblique muscle to downward gaze is greater in this position. Common activities requiring this type of convergent gaze are reading the newspaper and walking down stairs. Diplopia associated with these activities may be the initial symptom of a fourth nerve palsy.

0 MC cause Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Most Common Cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia is 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (then 11-)

0 Nobel Prize 2010

Robert Edwards has been awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his IVF (human in-vitro fertilization) therapy - Edwards is known as the father of the test tube baby.

0 MC Congenital cardiac anomaly

MC Congenital cardiac anomaly is VSD (membranous > muscular)

0 Vesico-Vaginal Fistula

MC cause of VVF (vesicovaginal fistula)
in developing countries-Obstructed labour,
in developed countries-Malignancy

0 Increase in ECF k+

Q.When extracellular k+ is increased from 4 meq to 10 meq what will happen?
a. RMP becomes more negative
b. increase in sodium conductance
c. increase in potassium conductance
d. Na-K ATP ase will be stopped

ans: B
K+ increased in ECF , will decrease RMP , thereby increasing ecitability and thus increases ability of Na+ to move into the cell (increases its conductance)


In normal fetuses, AFP binds the hormone estradiol. AFP is measured , in pregnant women using maternal blood or amniotic fluid, as a screening test for a subset of developmental abnormalities:
It is principally increased in open neural tube defects and omphalocoele & decreased in Down syndrome.

It is also measured in non-pregnant women, other adults, and children, serving as a biomarker to detect a subset of tumors.

In adults, levels over 500 nanograms/milliliter of AFP are seen in only three situations: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Germ cell tumors, and metastatic cancer in the liver originating from other primary tumors elsewhere.

0 Neurohormone

A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neurons.

Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone

0 Wiskott-Aldrich

Elevated IgA levels n presence of thrombocytopenia
A.Job's syndrome
C.Carcinoid synd


Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked recessive disease characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), immune deficiency, and bloody diarrhea (secondary to the thrombocytopenia.
IgM levels are reduced, IgA and IgE are elevated, and IgG levels can be reduced or elevated

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