0 Anterior cruciate ligament

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MCQ 158

Q. Anterior cruciate ligament is ?


a. intracapsular and intrasynovial

b. intracapsular and extrasynovial

c. extracapsular and intrasynovial

d. extracapsular and extrasynovial



ANSWER:
Answer : B - intracapsular and extrasynovial
Both ACL and PCL are intracapsular and extrasynovial.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Chest X-ray rotation

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MCQ 157

Q. On a chest X-Ray, if the patient is rotated to left, then ?

a. left side becomes more radiolucent
b. right side becomes more radiolucent
c. both the sides become less radiolucent
d. radiolucency of both sides is not affected


ANSWER:
Answer : A -  if the patient is rotated to left, left side becomes more radiolucent





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Bat's wing shadowing - CXR

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Bat's wing shadowing - CXR

Can be seen in


  • Pulmonary oedema (Most common cause)
  • Pneumocystis infection
  • Alveolar cell carcinoma
  • Alveolar proteinosis
  • Goodpasture's syndrome





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Smoking related ILDs

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MCQ 156

Q. Which of the folowing is not a smoking related Interstitial lung disease (ILD) ?

a. Acute interstitial pneumonia

b. RB-ILD

c. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia

d. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis


ANSWER:
Answer : A - Acute interstitial pneumonia.







MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Fahr disease

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MCQ 155

Q. In Fahr disease there is ?


a. abnormality in calcium metabolism

b. abnormality in phosphate metabolism

c. abnormality in both calcium or phosphate metabolism

d. no abnormality in calcium or phosphate metabolism



ANSWER:
Answer : D, In Fahr disease calcification can be found in the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate, thalamus, cerebellum (especially dentate nucleus), corona radiata, and subcortical white matter. There is no abnormality in calcium or phosphate metabolism.



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

2 DNB Thesis - Front cover page format

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Thesis submission guidelines - Click here

This front cover page format (below) was submitted by a DNB resident after his thesis acceptance for December 2013 examination. (Name not disclosed on request) 

We take no responsibility, whatsoever, on the authentication of the same in current scenario. 

Please inform us if you know about any change in the guideline for the same by Natboard.

Front cover page format


THESIS TOPIC

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE
NATIONAL BOARD OF EXAMINATIONS

IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REGULATION FOR THE AWARD OF DIPLOMATE OF NATIONAL BOARD
(SUBJECT)
EXAMINATION TO BE HELD IN month,year

BY
Name
Reg No.

GUIDE 
Name


DEPARTMENT OF ____________
____________  INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

City  - Pin , State , INDIA



Front cover for summary : Everything is same except for addition of the word SUMMARY.

THESIS TOPIC
SUMMARY

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE
NATIONAL BOARD OF EXAMINATIONS




*Fill the Red with your details.
*If you do not have the NBE amblum pic - click here


MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Spinal meningeal cysts

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MCQ 154

Q. Which of the following is type 2 spinal meningeal cyst ?

a. extradural spinal arachnoid cyst

b. tarlov cyst

c. intradural spinal arachnoid cyst

d. sacral meningocoele


ANSWER:
Answer : B - Tarlov cyst = perineural cyst.

Classification of spinal meningeal cysts :
type I : extradural with no neural tissue
a - extradural spinal arachnoid cyst
b - sacral meningocele
type II : extradural with neural tissue eg: tarlov cyst.
type III : intradural spinal arachnoid cyst






MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

1 Medical One Liners 301 - 310

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301. Thrombospondins (TSP) has anti-angiogenic abilities

302. Infectious diseases communicable during the later part of the incubation period are - Measles, chickenpox, whooping cough, hepatitis A.

303. Fredericson classification - medial tibial stress syndrome

304. Bismuth-Corlette classification - perihilar cholangiocarcinoma

305. Luftsichel sign & juxtaphrenic peak sign - Left Upper Lobe collapse
        Flat waist sign - Left Lower Lobe collapse.

306. Most common hepatic malignancy in children is Hepatoblastoma.

307. Most common anomaly associated with coarctation of aorta is bicuspid aortic valve.

308. 4th Ventricle Ependymoma vs Meduloblastoma
  • Ependymoma - usually from Floor of 4th ventricle (Mnemonic - Alphabetic order EF)
  • Meduloblastoma - usually from Roof of 4th ventricle
309. Most common tumor of mediastinum - neurogenic tumor.

310. Most common causes of renal artery stenosis
  • Old age - Atherosclerosis
  • Young (India) - Takayasu arteritis
  • Young (Western world) - Fibromuscular dysplasia.




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical one liners 291 - 300

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291. Ulcerative colitis causes inflammatory diarrhoea
        Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency causes Steatorrheal diarrhoea

292. Metastases -
  • MC intracranial metastasis from Carcinoma lung
  • MC hepatic metastasis (overall) from Bronchogenic carcinoma
  • MC hepatic mets from GIT from Colonic carcinoma
293. Isotonic exercise : Cardiac output increases
        Isometric exercise : Cardiac output decreases.

294. The repolarisation wave in heart starts from epicardial surface of apex.

295. Glucocorticoids increase the number of RBCs, platelets and neutrophils in the circulation.

296. Acute rheumatic fever - There is no residual damage to the joint.

297. Live vaccines are contraindicated in pregnancy.

298. Screening is effective for cervical cancer, breast cancer & oral cancer.

299. CTEV correction : 1st - forefoot adduction, then - inversion, then - equinus.

300. Receptor proteins for Parathyroid hormone (PTH) are present on both osteoblasts and osteocytes.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Energy sources

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Energy sources

Well fed state :

  • Glucose - for brain, liver and muscle
  • Fatty acid - for heart

Fasting state :
  • Glucose - for brain
  • Fatty acid - for heart, liver and muscle

Starvation :
  • Ketones - for Heart and brain
  • Amino acid - for liver
  • Fatty acid - for muscle





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One Liners 281 - 290

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281. Nucleus ambiguus - cranial nerves IX, X and XI.

282. Black pleural sign - Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

283. Nernst potential across cell membrane :

  • for K+ ion is -90 mV
  • for Na+ ion is +60 mV
  • for Cl- ion is -70 mV
284. Small cell Ca of lung is most common variety of lung cancer associated with paraneoplastic syndrome.

285. Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles - rapidly adapting (phasic) receptors.
        Merkel cells and Ruffini endings - slowly adapting (tonic) receptors.

286. Abdominal cocoon = Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

287. Apple core sign - on barium studies of circumferential growth in colon cancers.

288. Celery stalk metaphysis - in osteopathia striata , and congenital rubella.
        Celery stalk sign - in ACL mucoid degeneration.

289. Champagne glass pelvis - in Achondroplasia

290. Coffee bean sign - sigmoid volvulus.



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Banana

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  • Banana Sign :  shape of cerebellum in cases of Arnold chiari II malformation.
  • Banana shaped Left ventricle - seen in HOCM (hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy)
  • Banana fracture - Paget disease



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One Liners 271 - 280

Reactions: 


271. Gluteus 
  • maximus: inferior gluteal nerve
  • medius and minimus: superior gluteal nerve
272. Piriformis - lateral rotator of thigh

273. Short head of biceps and coracobrachialis originate from tip of coracoid process.

274. Positive benzidine test in : Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

275. Drug that increases QT interval - Amiodarone, Ebastine, Sotatol

276. SIADH is euvolemic hypoosmolality with increased Urine Na+ , Urine osmolality

277. Muscles related to eustachian tube - Tensor veli palatini, Levator veli palatini and Salpingopharyngeus.

278. Brain cells sensitivity to hypoxia :Neurons > Oligodendrocytes > Astrocytes > Endothelial cells
Among Neurons most sensitive are - Pyramidal cells in area CA1 of hippocampus - known as Sommer's sector.

279. Stratosphere sign on M - mode ultrasound - suggests Pneumothorax.

280. Killian’s dehiscence (also known as gateway of tears) - Between thyropharyngeus and cricopharyngeus.



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

1 Radiology Quiz 1

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ANSWERS :
Both are distal radius fractures
A - Colles fracture (with dorsal angulation)
B - Smith fracture (with palmar angulation)





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One Liners 261 - 270

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261. Puff of smoke sign is seen in Moya moya disease.

262. Onodi cells are sphenoethmoidal air cells and are in close relation to optic nerve (usually) or internal carotid artery (less commonly)

263. Haller cells are maxilloethmoidal air cells that may be in close relation to infra-orbital nerve.

264. Hepatoportoenterostomy, or Kasai portoenterostomy is a surgical treatment performed on infants with biliary atresia to allow for bile drainage.

265. Denis Browne operation is used for surgical repair of hypospadias.

266. Corpora arenacea - Pineal gland
        Corpora amylacea - Prostate gland

267. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and Brunner’s glands are seen in Duodenum.

268. Anorectal ring is formed by  – Puborectalis, Internal anal sphincter and Deep external anal sphincter. (Mnemonic PID or DIP )

269. Gantzer's muscles - accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus.

270. Last carpal bone to ossify is pisiform.




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Caput medusae sign

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Caput medusae sign is seen in :

  • developmental venous anomaly (on Contrast enhanced CT or MRI)
  • portal venous hypertension (Portosystemic shunt - engorged paraumbilicus veins)





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One liners 251 - 260

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251. Most common type of disproportionate dwarfism : Achondroplasia

252. Commonest fatal neonatal dysplasia : Thanatophoric dwarfism.

253. Platyspondyly with central vertebral beaking is the diagnostic hallmark of Morquio's disease.

254. PNDT act - 1994, But PCPNDT act (amendment in PNDT act ) - 2003.

255. Pulmonary hypertension : Main pulmonary artery > 28.6 mm,
                                               Right descending pulmonary artery > 16mm

256. Speed of ultrasound in soft tissue : 1540 m/sec.

257. Natural global radiation : Average yearly radiation dose is 2.7 mSv

258. International commission on radiological protection (ICRP) was founded in 1928

259. Atomic energy act - 1962

260. Radionuclides K40 and C14 are present in human body.


MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Comet tail artifact

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MCQ 153

Q. Comet tail artifact is a type of 

a. reverberation artifact
b. side lobe artifact
c. posterior acoustic enhancement
d. posterior acoustic shadowing


ANSWER:

Answer : A (reverberation)
It is seen in gallbladder adenomyomatosis, caused by cholesterol crystals in Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses.




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Skull and achondroplasia

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MCQ 152

Q. Skull is not involved in all except :

a. Achondroplasia
b. Hypochondroplasia
c. Pseudoachondroplasia
d. All of the above


ANSWER:
Answer : A
Skull changes are mandatory to diagnose achondroplasia. - Calvarium large, base shortened , foramen magnum small and funnel shaped.
Skull is never involved in Hypochondroplasia and pseudochondroplasia.


MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Permissible radiation dose

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Radiation dose permissible in mSV/year

  • to radiation-occupational worker is 20
  • to lens is 150 
  • to skin is 500
  • to hands and feet is 500
  • to fetus (during entire pregnancy) is 2

1SV = 100REM
1Gy = 100RAD
For X-Rays and Gamma rays 1Roentgen = 1RAD = 1REM



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One Liners 241 - 250

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241. Lytic expansile bone metastases from - Kidney & Thyroid malignancies.

242. Paraduodenal hernias - the most common type of internal hernias.

243. Comet Tail on USG - Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder
        Comet Tail on CT - Round atelactasis

244. The term " Chasing the dragon " is used for imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy.

245. Double layered patella is characteristic for Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia.

246. Linguine sign - intracapsular rupture of a breast implant.

247. Lyre sign - splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour.

248. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica = Trevor's disease, characterized by irregular overgrowth of part of an epiphysis.

249. Urinomas are most commonly in the perirenal space.

250. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was born on - 27 March 1845.
On 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays.



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Segond fracture

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Segond fracture = avulsion of the anterolateral aspect of the lateral tibial plateau

Mechanism - internal rotation of tibia + varus stress

Originally postulated - avulsion of the lateral capsular ligament,
Recent MR study suggests - it occurs at the distal attachments of the iliotibial tract or Lateral Collateral Ligament. (ref: CT and MRI of the Whole Body, Fifth Edition, John R. Haaga)

Most common ASSOCIATED injury - ACL tear (75-100%)
2nd MC - Meniscal tear (medial or lateral, mostly posterior horn)(66-75%).











MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One Liners 231 - 240

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231. Chief artery supplying breast - Lateral thoracic artery 

232. Wheel within a wheel and Bull’s eye lesion is seen in hepatic ultrasound of - Liver candidiasis.

233. Berger's hernia - hernia in Pouch of Douglas

234. Petit's hernia - hernia through Petit's triangle = inferior lumbar triangle

235. Grynfeltt's hernia - hernia through Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle =superior lumbar triangle.

236. During muscle contraction H zone disappears, width of I band reduced ,A band remains unchanged.

237. Maximum potassium ion concentration in Colonic Fluid.
        Maximum Potassium secretion is by saliva.

238. Gantzer's muscle is accessory belly of the flexor pollicis longus muscle.

239. Cella media index > 4 is normal

240. Distal part of the tendon of Adductor magnus detaches and becomes the medial collateral ligament (Tibial collateral ligament) of the knee.









MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical one liners 221 - 230

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221. HMG-CoA-reductase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol metabolism.

222. Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells.

223. Hidebound bowel sign or the stack of coins - seen on barium study of small bowel in scleroderma.

224. Bigliani classification is used for acromion morphological types.

225. Climber's muscle - Latissmus dorsi.

226. Tailor’s muscle - Sartorius.

227. The endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm.

228. Crypts of Lieberkuhn are seen in Duodenum.

229. Corpora arenacea (or Brain sand) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus.

230. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are involved in myelin formation around axons in the CNS and peripheral nervous system, respectively.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One Liners 211 - 220

Reactions: 


211. Garland's triad (also known as the 1-2-3 sign) is suggestive of thoracic sarcoidosis.

212. The marginal vein of Servelle is pathognomonic for Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

213. Castellvi classification is used for Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae (LSTV).

214. Kohler disease - avascular necrosis of the navicular bone.

215. Kienbock disease - avascular necrosis of lunate.

216. Lateral end of clavicle appears at 5 wks intra-uterine life, Medial end of clavicle appears at 15 years of life.

217. Ball on tee sign - seen in papillary necrosis on IVU.

218. Metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel is seen in SCFE (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis)

219. Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) occur before the fusion of epiphysis and are usually metaphyseal in location.

220. Osteoid osteoma has male preponderance, cause night-pain that is relieved by Aspirin.




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Posterior acoustic shadowing and enhancement

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Posterior enhancement seen posterior to fluid filled cyst.




Posterior shadowing seen posterior to calculus at PelviUretric Junction





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Medical One liners 201 - 210

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201. Most common site of  iatrogenic esophageal perforation is Cricopharynx ( as its the narrowest part of GIT , with exception of vermiform appendix )

202. Important 25 cm structures :
  • Oesophagus
  • Duodenum
  • Thoracic duct
  • Ureter.
203. Accordion sign is seen with pseudomembranous colitis.

204. Most commonly symptomatic Plica is Medial Patellar plica.
Plica is embryological remnant of synovial membrane at patello-femoral joint.

205. The commonest cause of anterior knee pain is softening of the cartilage on the underside of the patella = Chondromalacia patella = Patellofemoral syndrome.

206. Most common congenital anomaly of urinary tract is Duplex collecting system.

207. Central dot sign is seen in Caroli disease.

208. The bear's paw sign is seen in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

209. Coins in the oesophagus are oriented in the coronal plane whereas coins in the trachea are oriented sagittally.

210. Portomesenteric vein gas is most commonly caused by mesenteric ischemia.



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Urachal anomalies

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MCQ 151

Q. Which of the following urachal anomalies is usually associated with urethral obstruction ?

a. Patent urachus

b. Urachal cyst

c. Urachal sinus

d. Urachal diverticulum


ANSWER:
Answer : A





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Base of the 5th metatarsal

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Fractures and normal variants to remember at base of the 5th metatarsal :

Fractures -
  1. Jones fracture
  2. Stress fracture
  3. Avulsion fracture 

Non-fracture mimics -
  1. Normal apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal 
  2. Os peroneum




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Suspicious malignant breast mass shape

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MCQ 150

Q. Which of the following is suspicious malignant breast mass shape ?

a. taller than wider

b. wider than taller

c. elliptical

d. round


ANSWER:
Answer : A





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Infrarenal IVC development variation

Reactions: 


MCQ 149

Q. In a person with infrarenal IVC developing from subcardinal vein, which of the following will be seen ?

a. Duplex collecting system

b. Aberrant renal artery

c. Supernumerary kidney

d. Retrocaval ureter


ANSWER:
Answer: D - RetroCaval Ureter. Normally the infrarenal IVC develops from supracardinal vein. In case it develops from subcardinal vein , then we see what is known as RETRO-CAVAL Ureter.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Todani classification

Reactions: 


MCQ 148

Q. Caroli's disease is considered under which type of cysts in Todani's classification ?

a. Type 2

b. Type 3

c. Type 4

d. Type 5


ANSWER:
Answer : D - Type 5

Todani classification of bile duct cysts
Type 1 : true choledochal cyst (involving extrahepatic bile duct)
Type 2 : bile duct diverticulum
Type 3 : choledochocele
Type 4 : intra & extra-hepatic duct cysts
Type 5 : intra-hepatic duct cysts. (Caroli disease)






MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Testicular torsion - arterial occlusion

Reactions: 


MCQ 147

Q. Testicular Torsion of at least ______ degrees is necessary for complete arterial occlusion ?

a. 180

b. 360

c. 540

d. 720


ANSWER:
Ans : C - 540 degrees





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Not a true diaphragmatic opening

Reactions: 


MCQ 146

Q. Which of the following is not a true opening in diaphragm ?

a. Vena caval hiatus

b. Esophageal hiatus

c. Aortic hiatus

d. All are true apertures


ANSWER:
Answer : C - Aortic hiatus (T12 level)
Aortic hiatus is a gap in between diaphragm and body of T12 vertebra. It is not a true opening within the diaphragm and lies behind it.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Open ring sign

Reactions: 


MCQ 145

Q. Open ring contrast enhancement (Open ring sign) is seen in ?

a. Demyelination

b. Cerebral abscess

c. Granuloma

d. Low grade glioma


ANSWER:
Answer : A - Demyelination.
The open ring is towards the grey matter. The enhancement towards the white matter represents the advancing front of demyelination.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Boerhaave's syndrome vs Mallory–Weiss syndrome

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Boerhaave's syndrome vs Mallory–Weiss syndrome



Boerhaave's syndrome


Mallory–Weiss syndrome


Site :  Lower thoracic oesophagus


Site: Vertical tear in cardia of stomach , may extend to distal oesophagus.


There is vertical perforation, and all gastric content goes into mediastinum.
No history of foreign body.

Mackler's triad may be seen :
  • Chest pain, 
  • vomiting and 
  • subcutaneous emphysema



Mucosa and submucosa are involved, NOT a complete perforation.
Presentation : Hematemesis (Not pain)

Reason : Vomiting / Retching against closed cricopharynx. i.e barotrauma


Reason : Vomiting , Increased LES (Lower esophageal sphincter)  pressure. –  can cause tear.

Sign : Air in mediastinum

Hamman’s Sign  (seen with any cause of pneumomediastinum.) – On auscultation , because of air around heart.

Investigation of Choice : Water soluble contrast study ( DO NOT USE BARIUM)


Diagnosis : Upper GI endoscopy.



Treatment : Immediate surgery
(via LEFT thoracotomy )

If >24-48 hrs – Let heal with secondary intention , do not suture , Just put a drain.


Treatment : Conservative (95 % cases)






MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Esophageal ring

Reactions: 





Site : Lower oesophagus.

 A-Ring = Lower esophageal muscular ring 
  • Mostly asymptomatic.
  • Symptoms if present : Dysphagia for both solids and liquids in absence of food impactions.
  • Situated few centimeters proximal to Schatzki's location (see below)


 B-Ring = Lower esophageal mucosal ring = Schatzki ring 
  • There is fibrous thickening in submucosa, it is symmetrical. Mucosa is normal histopathologically.
  • Most patients are asymptomatic.
  • Symptoms if present : Dysphagia, more for solids , and food impactions.
  • Has association with hiatus hernia
  • Seen in Lower oesophagus above diaphragm at Squamocolumner junction
  • Treatment : Balloon when needed.

DYSPHAGIA if present is NON-PROGRESSIVE




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Esophageal web

Reactions: 


Esophageal web (acquired)

Site : Cricopharynx / Postcricoid.

Usually in association with Plummer–Vinson syndrome (PVS) = Paterson–Brown–Kelly syndrome = sideropenic dysphagia --which is a triad of
  • dysphagia , 
  • esophageal webs, and 
  • iron deficiency anemia.
Seen mostly in post-menopausal ladies.

Treatment : Iron supplementation, Balloon dilatation.




MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Ligamentum teres hepatis

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 Ligamentum teres hepatis 

  • Ligamentum teres hepatis is obliterated left umblical vein. (MCQ Point )
  • The umblical veins take oxygenated blood and join to the left and right branches of portal vein. (MCQ Point )
  • In embryo , normally , the right umblical vein completely disappears by about 8th week (intrauterine life) and only left umblical vein is present thereafter. ( can be remembered as "Left  is Left in body" (MCQ Point )
  • This left umbilical vein usually closes in <7days after birth, and forms round ligament of liver = ligamentum teres hepatis.
  • It results in the ligamentum teres joining to the left branch of the portal vein(MCQ Point )




Author : DrShiviMudgal

MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Ligamentum teres hepatis (MCQ)

Reactions: 


MCQ 143

Q. Ligamentum teres hepatis normally and usually joins to which of the following ?

a. Right branch of portal vein

b. Left branch of portal vein

c. Hepatic vein

d. IVC


ANSWER:
Answer : B - Left Portal Vein


  • Ligamentum teres hepatis is obliterated left umblical vein. (MCQ Point )
  • The umblical veins take oxygenated blood and join to the left and right branches of portal vein. (MCQ Point )
  • In embryo , normally , the right umblical vein completely disappears by about 8th week and only left umblical vein is present thereafter. ( can be remembered as "Left  is Left in body" (MCQ Point )
  • This left umbilical vein usually closes in <7days after birth, and forms round ligament of liver = ligamentum teres hepatis.
  • It results in the ligamentum teres joining to the left branch of the portal vein. (MCQ Point )








MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel
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