42 One Liners

1 - 50 :

1. Heart size is Normal in : TOF and TAPVC ( infracardiac form )

2. Visual reflex formation or Macula mature by 5-6 months life

3. Gardasil -- 16 , 18 , 6 , 11
    Cervarix -- 16 , 18

4. Renal tubular acidosis -- Normal Anion gap Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis
    Point to remember -- its NORMAL in Serum but POSITIVE anion gap in Urine

5. Ectopic ACTH Syndrome -- Hypokalemic Alkalosis

6. Anatomical Closure of Ductus arteriosus -- 1-3 months after birth. 1-3 months after birth. (ref: Langman's embryology & Guyton)

7. Corneal donor -- till 6 hour after death

8. Nerve fibers -- A and B are Myelinated ; A to C - Diameter and Velocity decrease

9. For Congenital hypothyroidism -- TSH , best done >48 hrs - 6 days life

10. Child of HIV positive Mother -- Cant use IgG for 1st 18 months to diagnose as that comes from
      mother. So p24 assay , PCR , Viral Culture are used.

11. Neomycin is present in Polio Vaccine

12. TORCH infectivity -- All at time of birth BUT Rubella has 2 peaks i.e 10 -11 wks and delivery.

13. Unchanged during child birth -- Diameter between Sacral promontary and Pubic Symphisis.

14. RAIU -- I 123 ;
      RIA ---- I 125

15. CO poisoning -- PO2 Normal but O2 saturation is less.

16. Fetal distress -- S/D ratio-- increases in Umblical Artery , decreases in MCA.

17. All Myopathies are Proximal except Myotonic Dystrophy (type 1)

18. All Neuropathies are Distal except GBS and SMA.

19. Glysine is the smallest and simplest Amino Acid.

20. Adder Head on IVP -- Ureterocele

21. Flower vase / shaking hand sign -- Horseshoe kidney

22. Ligament of Struthers.-- remnant of 3rd head of coracobrachialis , runs from supracondylar spur on anteromedial humerus to medial epicondyle, median n and brachial a may run beneath it.

23. Shortest Colon - Ascending
      Longest Colon - Transverse

24. Trigeminal Neuralgia rarely involves Ophthalmic division
      If in a young / if it is Bilateral -- then Multiple Sclerosis is a key consideration

25. After overnight fasting , levels of glucose transporters are reduced in Muscle.

26. Pacini Corpuscles -- detects gross pressure changes and vibration

27. Epiphyseal dysgenesis -- in Hypothyroidism

28. In Hypothyroidism --- Increased CSF protein

29. Most characteristic cutaneous manifestation of FMF (Familial Medit. fever) -- Erysipelas like erythema.

30. Two halves of Mandible join together by 2yrs of Life

31. Syphilitic Aortitis -- Proximal Ascending Aorta

32. Superficial spreading melanoma -- Buckshot appearance (Pagetoid cells)

33. Seborrheic Keratoses -- Stuck on lesion

34. Finger prints can be taken in cases of advanced decomposition and drowning
      But NOT in case of corrosion

35. Generally all bones ossify earlier in females
      Skull sutures obliterate earlier in Males.

36. Anterior neuropore closes by 25th day, and posterior one closes by 27th day of IUL.

37. Gittre cells are modified CNS macrophages.

38. Hirano Bodies in Hyppocampus -- Alzheimer's

39. Acrocentric Chromosomes -- 13 , 14 , 15 , 21 , 22 , Y

40. LAP increased in -- Leukamoid reaction , Polycythemia Vera
              decreased in -- CML , PNH

41. Schistiocyte -- MicroAngiopathic Hemolytic anaemia

42. Tear Drop cell -- Myelofibrosis

43. Target cell -- Thallesemia , HbC disease , Liver disease.

44. Good ALL -- Female , 2-10 years , Hyperdiploidy , B-ALL (NOT preB-ALL)

45. Pregnancy tumor of gums = Granuloma pyogenicum

46. RCC = Hypernephroma = Grawitz Tumor

47. Holly leaf mesangial deposits -- FSGN

48. Spike & Dome , String of Popcorn -- Membranous GN

49. Wire loop -- Class IV Lupus Nephritis

50. Post Mortem staining is well developed in 4 hrs and becomes fixed in 6-12 hrs

51 - 100 :

51. Three important syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches:
  • Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), 
  • Oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome (AOVS) and 
  • Auriculo-Condylar syndrome (ACS) or question mark ear syndrome.

52. Achlasia Cardia - uncoordinated, non-progressive contraction within the esophageal body
      BUT The hallmark symptom of achalasia is progressive dysphagia.

53. The mandible is not part of the cranium nor part of the facial skeleton.

54. There are 2 things - Threshold level and a discriminatory level for the appearance of a gestational sac 
      on USG
      The threshold level identifies the earliest one can expect to see a sac (4 weeks, 3 days), and 
      The discriminatory level identifies when one should always see the sac (5 weeks, 2 days).

55. Fluoroscopy is a real-time x-ray viewed on a video monitor, provides information about moving organs.
      Examples include motion of the diaphragm or chest wall during respiration and left ventricular
      contraction during systole. During fluoroscopy, the patient can be turned obliquely, to eliminate
      overlapping of structures.

56. Digitalis toxicity is precipitated by HypoKalemia , but its manifestation is HyperKalemia.

57. Beta Thallesemia minor -- HbA2 increased
      Beta Thall interm/major -- HbF increased

58. The left pulmonary artery lies above the left main bronchus before passing posteriorly, whereas on
      the right side the artery is anterior to the bronchus resulting in the right hilum being the lower.

59. Least CO2 -- in Anatomical Dead Space -- At the END Inspiratory Phase.

60. Central Chemoreceptors are not sensitive to Hypoxia.

61. Middle genicular artery pierces the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee joint.

62. Among Benzodiazepine - Lorazepam causes the longest duration of antegrade amnesia.

63. Pressure relief valve is not required for Cyclopropane.
     (Pressure relief valve is a mechanical device that eliminates system overpressure by allowing the
     controlled or emergency escape of liquid or gas from a pressurized system. The relief valve may or may
     not be adjustable.)

64. Each 1ml of O2 liquid -- 840 ml gas.

65. The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is often termed the Alderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve.

66. Failure of the sinus of His to obliterate that is believed to be the cause of the development of branchial cleft cysts, fistulas, or sinuses.

67. Red Ribbon -- Aids Awareness.
      Pink Ribbon -- Breast Cancer Awareness.

68. Father of Orthopaedics -- " Sir Nicholas Andre "

69. Blair's procedure -- Arthrodesis of ankle joint.

70. Darrach osteotomy -- done in Made Lung Deformity.

71. Partial or Complete loss of bone seen on X-Ray is Pathognomonic of Fracture. 

72. Godfrey Hounsfield won the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for developing CT, shared with Allan M. McCormack.

73. The atypical ribs : 1st, 2nd, 11th, and 12th ribs.

74. Cuffed ET tube - Cuff pressure should never exceed 30 cm of H2O (preferably 25cm).

75. PVC - ET tubes use High Volume Low Pressure cuffs. (therefore suitable for long duration).

76. FDA approved Raxibacumab to treat " inhalational anthrax " - First monoclonal antibody approved
      using the Animal Efficacy Rule.

77. Major carrier of Nitrogen by products from most tissues in the body is Glutamine.

78. Keloid is a result of an overgrowth of granulation tissue (collagen type 3) at the site of a healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1.

79. Median umbilical ligament is the remnant of the urachus, which joined the apex of the fetal bladder to the umbilicus.

80. Medial umbilical ligaments are formed by occluded parts of the Umbilical arteries.

81. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is the most common among Cholangiocarcinomas.

82. Maximum content of tryglyceride is found in- Chylomicrons

83. Maximum content of Exogenous tryglyceride is found in-Chylomicrons

84. Maximum content of Endogenous tryglyceride is found in- VLDL

85. Maximum content of Cholesterol is found in- LDL

86. N2O can be Teratogenic

87. Central pontine myelinolysis seen with correction of hyponatremia.

88. Best test for Malignant Hyperthermia - "Caffeine-halothane contracture test".

89. Neuroaxial block - INR should be < 1.4.

90. Protein intake in ICU : 1 - 1.5 g/kg/day.

91. Most common ophthalmic complication during anaesthesia : Corneal abrasion.

92. History of Post dural puncture headache is NOT a contraindication of Epidural block.

93. Flat Capnogram 

  • Accidental Extubation
  • Dissociation of anaesthetic tube
  • Mechanical ventilation failing
94. O2 content of anaesthetic mixture : 33%

95. Preanaesthetic drug which causes longest amnesia : Lorazepalm

96. Anaesthetic with Least decrease in Systemic vascular resistance : Halothane

97. Malignant Hyperthermia :
  • Hyperthermia
  • DIC
  • Respiratory Acidosis

98. Dextrose fluid is NEVER used for Resuscitation.

99. Opioid given as transdermal : Fentanyl

100. Drug of choice for Asystole and Cardiac arrest : Adrenaline

101 - 150 :

101. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex , leading to a buildup of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine)

102. The SMA lies to the left of the SMV as it crosses over the third portion of the duodenum. ( Clinical Importance : to check malrotation )

103. Meta-analysis is best for Probiotics' Trial.

104. Vertical crest in fundus of internal auditory canal is - Bill's Bar.

105. Sphincter of oddi has 3 sphincters.

106. Sheath surrounding the neurovascular bundle in axilla is derived from - Prevertebral fascia.

107. 1st part of duodenum has duodenal cap/bulb.

108. Spleen projects into Greater sac.

109. Axillary abscess is drained safely through Floor.

110. The primary direct stimulus for excitation of central chemoreceptors -  H+ increase.

111. Breast Milk is Contraindicated in Galactosemia

112. If Mother Sputum +ve TB - Still give breast milk to baby ( with 6months course of 5mg/kg INH )

113. Mother with HIV - Never mix feed i.e give exclusive trophic feed or give expressed milk of other women )

114. Mother to Child transmission of HbsAg - Prevent by 
  • HBIG within 12 hr of life
  • Vaccine on day 1 of life.
115. Anti HbsAb Protective Titre - > 10 mIU / ml

116. Liver biopsy in Alpha 1 anti-tripsin deficiency : PAS +ve and Diastase resistant granules

117. CMV : Intranuclear Owl eye inclusion bodies.

118. Nystagmus induced by Valsalva maneuver :
  • Chiari Malformation
  • Perilymph fistula
  • Superior Canal dehiscence syndrome
119. GABA is formed from Pyridoxine.

120. If pregnant lady shows Rubella antibody +ve : It means she is immune to rubella during her pregnancy and need not worry for rubella infection.

121. Various types of vasculitis produce aneurysms in many portions of the aorta and its branches, but Takayasu arteritis is the only type of aortitis that produces stenosis in the thoracic aorta.

(ref: Miller SM. Thoracic aortic diseases.)

122. Noonan Syndrome has Phenotype as that of Turner syndrome but Normal Karyotype (XX or XY).

123. Earliest disease for which enzyme supplementation / replacement therapy introduced - Gaucher's disease.

124. 1st disease for which Gene therapy introduced - SCID 

125. The dystrophin gene is the largest gene found in nature.

126. Down's syndrome in a baby of young mother is most commonly due to - Robertsonian translocation , not trisomy.

127. Maternal Lithium - Ebstein Anomaly - Box shaped heart.

128. Most common heart tumor - Atrial Myxomas

129. Umblical cord - 2 arteries 1 vein ( Right umblical vein disappears ).

130. The Pulmonary vascular resistance falls fairly rapid to reach Normal adult values by 2-3 wks in normal babies.
In VSD and PDA , it takes 6-10 wks.

131. Cat eye syndrome :
  • Partial trisomy of chromosome 22
  • Vertical oval pupil due to inferior iris coloboma
132. Single S2 in Tetrology of fallot.

133. All newborns have right ventricular hypertrophy and right axis deviation.

134. AA which have a pKa of 4 - aspartic acid and glutamic acid

135. Topoisomerase I (relaxase) 
  • makes ssDNA cuts, 
  • requires no ATP, 
  • relaxes supercoils, and 
  • acts as the swivel in front of the replication fork
136. 10 ATPs are generated per acetylCoA. (3NADH + 1FADH2 + 1GTP) {NADH = 2.5ATP; FADH2 = 1.5ATP}

137. Ketogenic AAs - Leucine and Lysine

138. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) associated enzymes :
  • Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  • Transketolase
139. DNA replication occurs during S phase of the cell cycle.

140. Rise in conjugated (direct) bilirubin seen in Rotor syndrome and Dubin–Johnson syndrome.

141. BP 120/80 is HTN in child <12yrs.

142. Sodium nitropuruside should not be given for >72hrs - else thiocynate toxicity will occur.

143. Sodium nitropuruside and Lineazolid are sensitive to light.

144. In PSVT , QRS is normal and P wave is either absent or inverted.

145. Wheeze/Rhonchi - whistling sound - means air trapped in bronchioles : Seen in
  • Asthma (Adults)
  • Bronchiolitis ( < 2year old )
146. Klinefelter syndrome is usually not be diagnosed until puberty.

147. NADPH oxidase deficient in chronic granulomatous disease of childhood.

148. Rhabdomyoma (benign cardiac tumor) is associated with tuberous sclerosis.

149. Type I thyroplasty is used for Medialization of cord.

150. Vitamin K dependent coagulation factors are
  • II
  • VII
  • IX
  • X
  • protein C and S

151 - 200 :
151. Sitting Duck shaped Heart is seen in Persistant Truncus Arteriosus.

152. Sherman paradox is seen in Fragile X syndrome. (It is Anticipation phenomenon in Fragile X syn)

153. Trethowans sign is positive in slipped femoral epiphysis.

Normally : If an anteroposterior view of the hip joint is taken then a line drawn along the superior surface of the neck should pass through the femoral head. ( This line is Klein's Line )
If the line remains superior to the femoral head then this is termed Trethowans sign.

154. Amrinone and Milrinone - Side effect - Thrombocytopenia.

155. In PSVT (Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia), QRS is normal.

156. DOC for typical absence seizures: Ethosuximide 

157. DOC for atypical absence seizures: Valproate

158. Hyperventilation provokes absence seizures.

159. Ring enhancing lesion on CECT Brain - think about NCC and Tuberculomas.

160. JME (juvenile myoclonic epilepsy) never shows complete remission.

161. Physiologically both hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in lactating breast.

162. Balthazar score / CT severity index is used for Grading Acute Pancreatitis.

163. Physiological umbilical hernia can be seen in 1st trimester ( < 12wks ) and does not persist in 2nd trimester.

164. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is seen in both Rotor syndrome and Dubin–Johnson syndrome but DJS has Black pigmentation of liver.

165. Most radiosensitive layer of retina - Rods and cones.

166. Most radioresistant layer of retina - Ganglion cell layer.

167. Ocular dendritic cells have HLA 2.

168. Transport of ascorbic acid to lens is done by myoinositol.

169. In PCOD : E1 increases (because of peripheral conversion of androgens) but E2 is normal.

170. Severe pancreatitis is said to be present if there is necrosis within the pancreas. Hence it is also known as necrotizing pancreatitis.

171. Coast of california sign is seen in neurofibromatosis.

172. Hyppocampus and amygdala are very sensitive to hypoxia. Therefore if exposed to hypoxia, they die after 30 mins.

173. Among causes of neonatal seizures, Late onset hypocalcemia has best prognosis.

174. Sweaty feet odor : Glutaric acidemia type II , Isovaleric acidemia.
(Isovaleric acidemia also Cheesy odor)
175. MC cause of pancreatic calcifications - Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

176. MC complication after lens extraction in PHPV is vitreous hemorrhage.

177. Adenocarcinomas do not calcify.

178. Forgotten muscle of rotator cuff - Subscapularis.

179. Rett syndrome is characterized by Microcephaly.

180. Inferior border of orbit is formed by contribution from maxilla , palatine and zygomatic bones.

181. Odor of urine for hypermethioninemia - boiled cabbage.
Also Cabbage odor - in Tyrosinaemia

182. Lead toxicity - Purely motor neuropathy.

183. Malnourished child is Sodium overloaded and Potassium depleted - hence use ReSoMal (Rehydration solution for malnourished)

184. GFR of a newborn is 15 - 20ml/min/1.73m2
        At 3 months - it is 2/3 rd of Adult
        Adult Values at 2years age.

185. Newborn's renal tubular concentration capacity reaches adult value at 1year of age.

186. Best method of estimating creatinine is Enzyme assay.

187. Oliguria is important sign of Renal failure.
Causes of Non-Oliguric Renal failure - 
  1. In Newborns , 
  2. Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity.

188. Total number of nephrons reaches adult value at 36 wks Intrauterine gestation. Thus after birth , there is only functional maturity.

189. In a child with CRF , if Acidosis and hyperphosphatemia is present , then these must be corrected first before introducing Growth hormone. (GH does not act if acidosis and increased Po4 are present)

190. Membranous glomerulonephritis has been associated with Renal vein thrombosis.

191. Lead pipe appearance of colon is seen in Ulcerative colitis.

192. Tomcat urine smell is associated to multiple carboxylase deficiency.

193. Caplan's syndrome is Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) + Pneumoconiosis.

194. Most common organism for UTI is E.Coli

195. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is only treated during pregnancy

196. Best urine sample for 8 month old girl is by SupraPubic catheterization (even a single colony is UTI with this sample)

197. IOC for VesicoUretric reflux is MCU (Micturating cystourethrography) = VCUG (Voiding cystourethrography )

198. Cranberry juice prevents UTI (because of its ant-adhesion property)

199. IOC for Posterior urethral valve -> MCU = VCUG

200. Pulmonary fibrosis in longstanding cases of Ankylosing spondylitis usually involves upper lobe.

201 - 250 :

201. Most common site of  iatrogenic esophageal perforation is Cricopharynx ( as its the narrowest part of GIT , with exception of vermiform appendix )

202. Important 25 cm structures :
  • Oesophagus
  • Duodenum
  • Thoracic duct
  • Ureter.
203. Accordion sign is seen with pseudomembranous colitis.

204. Most commonly symptomatic Plica is Medial Patellar plica.
Plica is embryological remnant of synovial membrane at patello-femoral joint.

205. The commonest cause of anterior knee pain is softening of the cartilage on the underside of the patella = Chondromalacia patella = Patellofemoral syndrome.

206. Most common congenital anomaly of urinary tract is Duplex collecting system.

207. Central dot sign is seen in Caroli disease.

208. The bear's paw sign is seen in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

209. Coins in the oesophagus are oriented in the coronal plane whereas coins in the trachea are oriented sagittally.

210. Portomesenteric vein gas is most commonly caused by mesenteric ischemia.

211. Garland's triad (also known as the 1-2-3 sign) is suggestive of thoracic sarcoidosis.

212. The marginal vein of Servelle is pathognomonic for Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

213. Castellvi classification is used for Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae (LSTV).

214. Kohler disease - avascular necrosis of the navicular bone.

215. Kienbock disease - avascular necrosis of lunate.

216. Lateral end of clavicle appears at 5 wks intra-uterine life, Medial end of clavicle appears at 15 years of life.

217. Ball on tee sign - seen in papillary necrosis on IVU.

218. Metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel is seen in SCFE (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis)

219. Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) occur before the fusion of epiphysis and are usually metaphyseal in location.

220. Osteoid osteoma has male preponderance, cause night-pain that is relieved by Aspirin.

221. HMG-CoA-reductase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol metabolism.

222. Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells.

223. Hidebound bowel sign or the stack of coins - seen on barium study of small bowel in scleroderma.

224. Bigliani classification is used for acromion morphological types.

225. Climber's muscle - Latissmus dorsi.

226. Tailor’s muscle - Sartorius.

227. The endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm.

228. Crypts of Lieberkuhn are seen in Duodenum.

229. Corpora arenacea (or Brain sand) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus.

230. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are involved in myelin formation around axons in the CNS and peripheral nervous system, respectively.

231. Chief artery supplying breast - Lateral thoracic artery 

232. Wheel within a wheel and Bull’s eye lesion is seen in hepatic ultrasound of - Liver candidiasis.

233. Berger's hernia - hernia in Pouch of Douglas

234. Petit's hernia - hernia through Petit's triangle = inferior lumbar triangle

235. Grynfeltt's hernia - hernia through Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle =superior lumbar triangle

236. During muscle contraction H zone disappears, width of I band reduced ,A band remains unchanged.

237. Maximum potassium ion concentration in Colonic Fluid.
        Maximum Potassium secretion is by saliva.

238. Gantzer's muscle is accessory belly of the flexor pollicis longus muscle.

239. Cella media index > 4 is normal

240. Distal part of the tendon of Adductor magnus detaches and becomes the medial collateral ligament (Tibial collateral ligament) of the knee.

241. Lytic expansile bone metastases from - Kidney & Thyroid malignancies.

242. Paraduodenal hernias - the most common type of internal hernias.

243. Comet Tail on USG - Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder
        Comet Tail on CT - Round atelactasis

244. The term " Chasing the dragon " is used for imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy.

245. Double layered patella is characteristic for Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia.

246. Linguine sign - intracapsular rupture of a breast implant.

247. Lyre sign - splaying of the internal and external carotid by a carotid body tumour.

248. Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica = Trevor's disease, characterized by irregular overgrowth of part of an epiphysis.

249. Urinomas are most commonly in the perirenal space.

250. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was born on - 27 March 1845.
On 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays.

251 - 300 :

251. Most common type of disproportionate dwarfism : Achondroplasia

252. Commonest fatal neonatal dysplasia : Thanatophoric dwarfism.

253. Platyspondyly with central vertebral beaking is the diagnostic hallmark of Morquio's disease.

254. PNDT act - 1994, But PCPNDT act (amendment in PNDT act ) - 2003.

255. Pulmonary hypertension : Main pulmonary artery > 28.6 mm,
                                               Right descending pulmonary artery > 16mm

256. Speed of ultrasound in soft tissue : 1540 m/sec.

257. Natural global radiation : Average yearly radiation dose is 2.7 mSv

258. International commission on radiological protection (ICRP) was founded in 1928

259. Atomic energy act - 1962

260. Radionuclides K40 and C14 are present in human body.

261. Puff of smoke sign is seen in Moya moya disease.

262. Onodi cells are sphenoethmoidal air cells and are in close relation to optic nerve (usually) or internal carotid artery (less commonly)

263. Haller cells are maxilloethmoidal air cells that may be in close relation to infra-orbital nerve.

264. Hepatoportoenterostomy, or Kasai portoenterostomy is a surgical treatment performed on infants with biliary atresia to allow for bile drainage.

265. Denis Browne operation is used for surgical repair of hypospadias.

266. Corpora arenacea - Pineal gland
        Corpora amylacea - Prostate gland

267. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and Brunner’s glands are seen in Duodenum.

268. Anorectal ring is formed by  – Puborectalis, Internal anal sphincter and Deep external anal sphincter. (Mnemonic PID or DIP )

269. Gantzer's muscles - accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus.

270. Last carpal bone to ossify is pisiform.

271. Gluteus 
  • maximus: inferior gluteal nerve
  • medius and minimus: superior gluteal nerve
272. Piriformis - lateral rotator of thigh

273. Short head of biceps and coracobrachialis originate from tip of coracoid process.

274. Positive benzidine test in : Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

275. Drug that increases QT interval - Amiodarone, Ebastine, Sotatol

276. SIADH is euvolemic hypoosmolality with increased Urine Na+ , Urine osmolality

277. Muscles related to eustachian tube - Tensor veli palatini, Levator veli palatini and Salpingopharyngeus.

278. Brain cells sensitivity to hypoxia :Neurons > Oligodendrocytes > Astrocytes > Endothelial cells
Among Neurons most sensitive are - Pyramidal cells in area CA1 of hippocampus - known as Sommer's sector.

279. Stratosphere sign on M - mode ultrasound - suggests Pneumothorax.

280. Killian’s dehiscence (also known as gateway of tears) - Between thyropharyngeus and cricopharyngeus.

281. Nucleus ambiguus - cranial nerves IX, X and XI.

282. Black pleural sign - Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

283. Nernst potential across cell membrane :

  • for K+ ion is -90 mV
  • for Na+ ion is +60 mV
  • for Cl- ion is -70 mV
284. Small cell Ca of lung is most common variety of lung cancer associated with paraneoplastic syndrome.

285. Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles - rapidly adapting (phasic) receptors.
        Merkel cells and Ruffini endings - slowly adapting (tonic) receptors.

286. Abdominal cocoon = Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

287. Apple core sign - on barium studies of circumferential growth in colon cancers.

288. Celery stalk metaphysis - in osteopathia striata , and congenital rubella.
        Celery stalk sign - in ACL mucoid degeneration.

289. Champagne glass pelvis - in Achondroplasia

290. Coffee bean sign - sigmoid volvulus.

291. Ulcerative colitis causes inflammatory diarrhoea
        Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency causes Steatorrheal diarrhoea

292. Metastases -
  • MC intracranial metastasis from Carcinoma lung
  • MC hepatic metastasis (overall) from Bronchogenic carcinoma
  • MC hepatic mets from GIT from Colonic carcinoma
293. Isotonic exercise : Cardiac output increases
        Isometric exercise : Cardiac output decreases.

294. The repolarisation wave in heart starts from epicardial surface of apex.

295. Glucocorticoids increase the number of RBCs, platelets and neutrophils in the circulation.

296. Acute rheumatic fever - There is no residual damage to the joint.

297. Live vaccines are contraindicated in pregnancy.

298. Screening is effective for cervical cancer, breast cancer & oral cancer.

299. CTEV correction : 1st - forefoot adduction, then - inversion, then - equinus.

300. Receptor proteins for Parathyroid hormone (PTH) are present on both osteoblasts and osteocytes.

301 - 350 :

301. Thrombospondins (TSP) has anti-angiogenic abilities

302. Infectious diseases communicable during the later part of the incubation period are - Measles, chickenpox, whooping cough, hepatitis A.

303. Fredericson classification - medial tibial stress syndrome

304. Bismuth-Corlette classification - perihilar cholangiocarcinoma

305. Luftsichel sign & juxtaphrenic peak sign - Left Upper Lobe collapse
        Flat waist sign - Left Lower Lobe collapse.

306. Most common hepatic malignancy in children is Hepatoblastoma.

307. Most common anomaly associated with coarctation of aorta is bicuspid aortic valve.

308. 4th Ventricle Ependymoma vs Meduloblastoma
  • Ependymoma - usually from Floor of 4th ventricle (Mnemonic - Alphabetic order EF)
  • Meduloblastoma - usually from Roof of 4th ventricle
309. Most common tumor of mediastinum - neurogenic tumor.

310. Most common causes of renal artery stenosis
  • Old age - Atherosclerosis
  • Young (India) - Takayasu arteritis
  • Young (Western world) - Fibromuscular dysplasia.

311. Lung tissue interposing between the main pulmonary artery and aorta was the most consistent diagnostic feature of Congenital absence of the pericardium (CAP).

312. Mathe’s sign- Absence of downward displacement of kidney in perinephric abscess.

313. Snowcap sign - Avascular necrosis - there is dense sclerosis over the head of humerus or femur.

314. Christmas tree / Pine cone bladder - cystogram appearance of urinary bladder in neurogenic bladder (not pathognomonic)

315. Sail sign - Seen on Xray lateral view with Elbow joint effusion.

316. Holly leaf sign - Chest X-ray showing calcified pleural plaques (most commonly in asbestos related disease)

317.  Coca-cola bottle sign - thyroid ophthalmopathy (usually in Grave's disease)

318. Panda sign : Wilson disease (neuroradiology) and Sarcoidosis (bilateral involvement of parotid and lacrimal glands)

319. Bright rim sign on FLAIR - seen in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET)

320. Round atelactasis with comet tail - seen in asbestos related disease.

321. CT scan is most sensitive investigation to detect pulmonary nodule of  3mm or greater diameter.

322. Dysmyelinating disease with MR Spectroscopy showing markedly elevated NAA peak - Canavan disease.

323. In PET scan, 18-FDG accumulates in metabolically active cells as FDG -6-phosphate but it does not enter citric acid cycle.

324. Most accurate imaging technique for the staging of primary lung tumors - PET

325. Most common posterior fossa tumor in adult - Cerebellar metastases.

326. Most common primary posterior fossa tumor in adult - Hemangioblastoma.

327. Fishhook ureter = hockey stick ureter = J-shaped ureter, seen in : significant BPH.

328. S-shaped ureter : seen with retrocaval ureter.

329. Masaoka staging system is used for - thymomas.
Stage II and above - thymic carcinoma.

330. Chauffeur fractures = Hutchinson fractures = backfire fracture : intraarticular fracture of the radial styloid process.
331. Strawberry shaped skull - seen in trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome).

332. H-shaped vertebra (also known as Lincoln log vertebra) - 10% cases of sickle-cell anaemia, occasionally Gaucher disease.

333. Fat ring sign or fat halo sign in messentry is seen in - Messenteric panniculitis

334. Aortic nipple sometimes seen on a Chest Xray PA view, is formed by left superior intercostal vein.

335. Most common Soft tissue sarcoma
  • Middle age and elderly - Malignant fibrous histiocytoma > liposarcoma > leiomyosarcoma >malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors(MPNST).
  • Younger individuals - Fibrosarcoma > Rhabdomyosarcoma > Synovial sarcoma > MPNST

336. Bilateral posterior iliac horns are considered pathognomonic for Fong's disease = Nail patella syndrome.

337. Bochdalek's hernia is mostly left sided because of protective effect from liver on the right.

338. Mini Brain sign is seen in Solitary Plasmacytoma - It is due to prominent thickened residual trabeculae seen in a solitary expansile bone lesion.

339. Tube ring sign on ultrasound is highly specific(95%) for tubal ectopic pregnancy.

340. Ring of fire sign on color doppler can be seen in Ectopic pregnancy and Corpus luteum cyst.

341. Primary amyloid can cause an inflammatory response in lungs. This does not happen in case of secondary amyloid.

342. Drugs which can cause eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltrates- Penicillin, sulfonamides, methotrexate, asprin, nitrofurantoin, PAS.

343. The cytotoxic drugs have fibrogenic effect. This is enhanced by radiotherapy and high levels of inspired oxygen.

344. Intra renal calculi are usually asymptomatic. But an intra renal calculus can obstruct at the level of infundibulum and present with pain.

345. Shiny corner sign is seen in Ankylosing spondylitis.

346. MRI is the modality of choice in the assessment of glutaric aciduria type 1

347. Most common offending vessel in vascular loop compression -
  • Causing trigeminal neuralgia - superior cerebellar artery
  • Hemifacial spasm - Anterior inferior cerebellar artery.

348. Porencephalic cyst is lined by white matter whereas arachnoid cyst is lined by grey matter.

349. Dandy-Walker variant can not be diagnosed before the 18th week of gestation because the inferior vermis is not formed at this time.

350. Most consistent pathological finding in chronic bronchitis - hypertrophy of mucous secreting glands of bronchi.

351 - 400 :

351. Causes of Apple core sign femur
  • synovial chondromatosis (Most common)
  • pigmented villonodular synovitis
  • amyloidosis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
352. Anterior tibial translation/translocation > 7mm is highly suggestive of Anterior cruciate ligament tear.

353. Laryngo-tracheo bronchitis or croup is the commonest cause of tracheal narrowing.

354. Most common primary malignant tumor of parotid gland - Mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

355. Type 3 accessory navicular bone - is called a cornuate navicular.

356. Myoinositol concentrations in brain are abnormally increased in patients with demyelinating disease and alzheimer's. Detected by MR spectriscopy.

357. Morel Lavalle lesion - degloving injury in severe trauma resulting in abrupt separation of the skin and subcutaneous fatty tissue from the underlying fascia.

358. Overproduction of protein and lipid rich material from Type II pneumocytes which is not cleared by lungs - leads to Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

359. Subpleural lucent line - seen in Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
Subpleural linear opacities - seen in Asbestosis.

360. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is indistinguishable to lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis but Chylothorax and chyloperitoneum are common in LAM.
361. Trilateral retinoblastoma
  • bilateral retinoblastoma and
  • intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor ( pineal or suprasellar )
362. T-shaped uterus : seen in cases of in-utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.

363. Intra-aortic baloon pumps are used in patients with cardiogenic shock.
Ideally placed just distal to left subclavian artery origin.

364. Left lower lobe basal atelactasis is frequently seen in patients with heart transplantation.

365. Right upper lobe bronchus arising from trachea is called - PIG bronchus.

366. Congenital lobar emphysema is a misnomer as there is no alveolar wall destruction.
  • It is better termed as Congenital lobar overinflation.
  • MC affects Left upper lobe of lung (43% cases)

367. Most common location of bronchogenic cyst is : Mediastinal - carinal.

368. Most common location for Intralobar pulmonary sequestration : Medial left lower lobe.

369. Leiomyoma of oesophagus affects lower 2/3rd as this part has smooth muscle.

370. Double pyloric canal - seen when gastric antral ulcer fistulate to the duodenal cap.
371. Metastases to thyroid gland is rare. Most common metastases to thyroid is from MELANOMA.

372. Most important point of differentiation between extradural hematoma (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH) - Is the ability of SDH to cross the suture lines whereas EDH does not cross suture line.
Though EDH is usually biconvex and SDH is usually concavo-convex BUT It is important to remember that even SDH can be biconvex.

373. Most common site of gastrointestinal lymphoma - Stomach.

374. The dripping candle wax sign or flowing candle wax is described in Melorheostosis which demonstrates sclerotic cortical thickening.

375. Oesophageal varices - are Submocosal.
        Gastric varices - are Subserosal.

376. Double decidual sac sign helps to distinguish between an early intrauterine pregnancy and a pseudogestational sac.
It is formed by decidua parietalis and decidua capsularis which form two concentric rings around the true gestational sac.

377. Nuchal translucency > 3 mm between 10-14 wks gestation has significant association with chromosomal abonormality.

378. Syndromes ass. with omphalocele
  • pentalogy of Cantrell
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
379. USG signs of chorionicity
  • Lamda sign - Dichorionic twins
  • T sign - Monochorionic twins
380. With increase in kVp (keeping other factors constant), the radiation dose to patient increases.
Radiation dose is directly proportional to square of kVp.

381. Most common leukaemia in downs syndrome - ALL

382. Leukodystrophy (Dysmyelinating disease) with amino acid metabolism disorder - Canavan disease.

383. Primary extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumors - mostly found in - omentum and mesentery.

384. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) = Lou Gehrig's Disease - between the ages of 40 and 70 - affects corticospinal tracts (runs through posterior limb of internal capsule).

385. Weigert-Meyer law : (for complete duplication of renal collecting system and ureters)
  • Upper renal moiety - Hydronephrosis ; distal end in bladder offten has ureterocele
  • Lower renal moiety - shows frequent reflux (inserts ectopically - lateral and superior in bladder)
386. Psammoma body associations :
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma
  • Mesothelioma
  • Papillary renal cell carcinoma
  • Serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinoma
  • Endometrial adenocarcinomas (papillary serous carcinoma)
  • Meningioma
387. Goldblatt kidney - constriction of the renal artery - renal ischemia - release of renin - hypertension.

388. The superior anastomotic vein or Vein of Trolard drains the superficial middle cerebral vein into  superior sagittal sinus.

389. The inferior anastomotic vein or Vein of Labbe drains the superficial middle cerebral vein into transverse sinus.

390. Chang’s sign - seen in pulmonary embolism - abrupt change in diameter of pulmonary artery.

391. Bouquet of flowers appearance = paintbrush appearance - seen in Medullary sponge kidney on IVP.

392.Gallbladder ghost triad - seen sonographically in Biliary atresia
  • atretic gallbladder length <19 mm, 
  • thin or absent mucosal lining or indistinct wall, 
  • irregular gallbladder contour
393. Triangular cord sign : Sonographic sign showing > 4mm thickness of echogenic anterior wall of the right portal vein (EARPV) in cases of Biliary Atresia.

394. Omental cake can be seen in Metastases (most common) from ovarian, gastric or colon cancer, Tuberculous peritonitis and Lymphoma.

395. Absence of swallow tail sign - Parkinson's disease.

396. Aphthous ulcers are seen in Crohn's disease. They are NEVER seen in Ulcerative colitis.

397. Lobster claw sign: seen in papillary necrosis.

398. Manta ray sign seen in bladder exstrophy.

399. Eye of tiger sign seen in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome.

400. Uterine choriocarcinoma can occur following molar pregnancy, abortion and even normal pregnancy.

401 - 450 :
401. Osteoporosis: decreased bone mass but normal mineralization. (Mineral to matrix ratio normal)

402. Osteomalacia: decreased rate of mineralization, hence increased quantity of non-calcified matrix. (Mineral to matrix ratio decreased)

403. MRI breast: In pre-menopausal women it should be performed between 7th-14th day (2nd week) after start of menstrual cycle, to avoid interference from normal enhancing breast tissue that may otherwise lead to false negative/positive results.

404. Woven bone with osteoblastic rimming:
  • Ossfying fibromas (=osteofibrous dysplasia)
  • Osteoblastoma 
  • Paget’s disease
405. Woven bone without osteoblastic rimming: Fibrous dysplasia

406. Gamekeeper thumb = skier thumb: tear of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb (at 1st metacarpophalyngeal joint)

407. Colles fracture: extra-articular distal radius fracture with dorsal angulation

408. Barton fracture: intra-articular distal radius fracture extending to dorsal aspect

409. Smith fracture - type I: extra-articular distal radius fracture with volar angulation

410. Reverse Barton fracture = type II Smith: intra-articular distal radius fracture extending to volar aspect.

411. Bulging fissure sign: Klebsiella pneumonia

412. Venous sinus thrombosis CT:
  • Non contrast - dense delta sign
  • Contrast CT - empty delta sign
413. Worst headache of life: Subarachnoid haemorrhage

414. Investigation of choice for
  • aneurysm - angiography
  • aortic aneurysm - CT scan as there may be intraluminal thrombus
  • aortic dissection - MRI
415. Basal exudates on CT seen in: Tuberculous meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis.

416. Contrast of X-ray image is inversely related to kVp.

417. Radiation intensity is inversely proportional to square of distance from the radiation.

418. Chest X-ray PA view is taken with film to focus distance of 180 cm. Chest AP view and other X-rays are taken at 100 cm.

419. Golden S sign: Right upper lobe collapse due to hilar mass.

420. Most common lung carcinoma with cavitation: Squamous cell carcinoma

421. For lung investigation - CT scan is best, except in Pancoast tumour/Superior sulcus tumour where MRI is investigation of choice to look for brachial plexus involvement.

422. Silhouette's sign or more correctly loss of silhouette sign:
  • Middle lobe pathology: obscures right heart border
  • Lower lobe pathology: obscures diaphragm
  • Lingular pathology: left heart border
  • Posterior segment of left upper lobe: aortic knuckle
  • Also see this MCQ: here
423. Lordotic chest X-ray view is used for:
  • Middle lobe examination (best view)
  • Lung apex pathology
  • Interlobar fissural effusion
424. Mammography:
  • screening in >40 yr females - once yearly
  • to detect DCIS - MRI is best (done in 2nd week of menstruation)
  • in young female, mammography is not useful as there is a lot of glandular tissue that makes the breast very dense
  • Most common sign of malignancy seen on mammogram: microcalcification
  • Popcorn calcification in breast: Fibroadenoma {Note: Popcorn calcification in lungs - pulmonary hamartoma, it also has fat in the lesion}
425. Radiation doses
  • Extremity X-ray = DEXA < Chest X-ray < Mammography < CT head < CT chest < CT Abdomen and pelvis < Coronary CT angiography < PET/CT
  • Barium studies have doses close to CT head, except Barium enema which has dose just less than CT chest.
426. HRCT Lung - uses bone algorithm for image reconstruction, useful for:
  • interstitial lung diseases and bronchiectasis
--> HRCT in Alveolar proteinosis: Crazy pavement appearance (see also: MCQ)
--> HRCT is also used in temporal bone imaging.
  • for Bony labyrinth: do CT
  • Membranous labyrinth: do MRI
427. All fractures are well visualized on CT except stress fracture which is best seen on MRI due to edema.

428. MRI uses free induction decay to receive signals.
Absolute contraindication:
  • Pacemaker
  • Metallic (ferromagnetic) implant/foreign body
429. Substances that are white/hyperintense on T1 Weighted MRI:
  • fat
  • subacute haemorrhage
  • posterior pituitary
  • melanoma and its metastases
430. CSF is white on T2 weighted image and dark on T1 weighted image. 

431. Egg shell calcification
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Silicosis
  • Treated Lymphoma
432. Achondroplasia
  • Champagne glass pelvis
  • Bullet shaped vertebra
  • Tombstone iliac wings
  • Trident hand
  • Macrocephaly with narrowed foramen magnum
433. In Doppler ultrasound, colour indicates direction of flow, conventionally:
  • Red: towards the probe
  • Blue: away from the probe
However, this can be reversed with machine settings.

434. Umbilical artery Doppler
  • S/D ratio should be < 3 after 34 weeks of pregnancy
  • S/D ratio in umbilical artery should always be less than that in MCA
  • IUGR
    • S/D >3 after 34 weeks gestation
    • Absent diastolic flow
    • reversal of diastolic flow
435. Thallium Scan: binds to normal perfused areas of myocardium, therefore infarct looks cold

436. Tecnitium Pyrophophate: binds to myocardial infarct and so it looks hot on nuclear scan.

437. Fibrous dysplasia
  • Ground glass matrix
  • Shepherd crook deformity
438. Diaphyseal aclasis = Hereditary multiple exostoses

439. Multiple enchondroma
  • = Ollier's disease
  • with Multiple subcutaneous hemangiomas = Maffucci syndrome
440. McCune-Albright syndrome
  • Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
  • Precocious puberty
  • Cafe au lait spots

441. MRI - Gadolinium contrast is used (when needed). In patients with renal failure, it may cause Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis - plaques of skin (firm, indurated and erythematous) with subcutaneous oedema.

442. Air bronchograms can be seen in alveolar pathologies:
  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Hyaline membrane disease
  • Bronchoalveolar carcinoma
443. Pneumatocele can be seen in
  • Staphylococcal and klebsiella pneumonia
  • Hydrocarbon poisoning
444. Viral and mycoplasma pneumonia gives interstitial pattern. No alveolar exudates are seen.

445. Hydatid cyst:
  • Ultrasound: Cart wheel appearance
  • in Lungs it does not calcify
  • Chest X-ray: if contained rupture - water lily sign
    • Note: Drooping lily sign is seen on IVP in duplex collecting system with upper moiety obstruction
446. Egg in cup:
  • calyces: Papillary necrosis
  • heart: constrictive pericarditis
447. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) has high Kupffer cells and takes up technetium 99m sulphur colloid.

448. In Blunt trauma cases:
  • Ideal and gold standard investigation: Contrast enhanced CT (CECT)
  • If haemodynamically unstable/1st Investigation: FAST (Focused assessment sonography in trauma)
449. Beaded appearance in Renal artery/Internal carotid/External Iliac: Fibromuscular dysplasia

450. Only Veins (hepatic and portal) form basis of division of couinaud segments of the liver.


451. Periampullary carcinoma: Double duct sign

452. Carcinoma head of pancreas: Barium study - Widening of C loop of duodenum.

453. Down's syndrome: Antenatal ultrasound 
  • Increased Nuchal Translucency >3mm (between 11.3 to 13.6 weeks gestation)
    • Not to be confused with Nuchal fold thickness which is taken between 18 to 22 weeks of gestation
  • Absent / Hypoplastic Nasal bone
454. Ostium secundum is the Most common type of ASD, 
  • but in Down's syndrome - Ostium Primum.
455. Pancreatits: Investigation
  • Acute pancreatits: CECT is best
  • Chronic Pancreatitis: ERCP best, shows chain of lakes

456. Vertebral collapse
  • Normal IV disc
    • Trauma
    • Neoplasm
      • Adult - Multiple myeloma , Metastasis
      • Child - Histiocytosis
  • Reduced IV disc - Pott's spine
457. Most commonly PET scan uses 18 FDG
  • In myocardial perfusion - PET uses Rubidium 82
458. Bone infarct / Avascular necrosis - Best test is MRI

459. Vaginal epithelium is derived from endoderm of the urogenital sinus.

460. Half life of 18-FDG is 110 mins.


  1. This was exactly what i needed, Thank u so much sir

  2. could u pl tell wt is this Gardasil and cervarix?

  3. Sukanya - they are vaccine for use in the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-- (HPV types mentioned in numbers)

    1. point no. 288 that ACL is ant cruciate ligament?

    2. Yes ACL is anterior cruciate ligament

  4. Awesome , thanks a lot

  5. sum of d things discusd here..ve been askd in this dnb..

  6. Thanks , this is much needed now as the exam pattern is 1 liners only. NEET as well as DNB , both ask one liners.

  7. amazing work please keep posting new ones too. very useful

  8. really very good work

  9. brilliant, please keep them coming :)

  10. The best thing i like about this site is that it does not place big ads in between posts and the ads never block our reading. Most other sites place a lot of ads in posts and that becomes irritating to eyes. On the other hand i find reading this site as a soothing experience to eyes. I have almost read all the posts of this site in past 2 months. Hoping to see more wonderful work ahead. Keep it up. Amazing effort mediconotebook team.

  11. Thanks a lot everyone for your kind words. Your appreciation helps us boost up our work and help as much as we can.

  12. Preparing for NEET PGJune 17, 2013 at 2:33 AM

    WOW !! Thanks

  13. Thank u so much :D

  14. This is wat i needed for Cming aipgmee..thanx a lot:)

  15. sir agger nasi cells are MOST anterior ethmoidal cells, plz mention its source. excellent compilation of great help anyways. keep coming. thnx.

    1. Its a fact. For confirmation, you can google it any time. Just write this line "Agger nasi cells are most anterior ethmoidal cells" in google and you will get a lot of references.

  16. sir please tell something about energy sources in starvation

  17. Respected sir, your one liners are very much innovative for us to quick revision before pg exams. It will help everybody for who are preparing for exams.

  18. acetyl coa produces 10atp(changed)

    1. Can you please provide with some standard reference for the change ?

      I think you said 10 by taking NADH = 2.5 ATP and FADH2 = 1.5 ATP.

      And 1 AcetylCoA = 3 NADH + 1 FADH2 + 1 GTP.

    2. Thanks for pointing out the change. We will mention it. We request you to provide reference of a standard text if possible.

    3. Thanks a lot for posting the change on facebook. Just now saw it. You guys are amazing... and thanks to shakey too.

  19. sir if asked doc of absence seizures n not given typical or atypical?

    1. We prefer going for typical, when nothing mentioned.

  20. Wow exactly what i needed... but pls keep updating

  21. Exactly what i needed.. but pls keep updating

  22. Thank u ......is there any other like this....please trl me friends/sir

    1. I have not seen any other. MN team is the only one I think who have compiled these high yielding points at one place

  23. Thank you thank you thank you

  24. Thanks a bunch folks! Good for last minute revision :)


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