34. Finger prints can be taken in cases of advanced decomposition and drowning
But NOT in case of corrosion
35. Generally all bones ossify earlier in females Skull sutures obliterate earlier in Males.
36. Anterior neuropore closes by 25th day, and posterior one closes by 27th day of IUL.
44. Good ALL -- Female , 2-10 years , Hyperdiploidy , B-ALL (NOT preB-ALL)
45. Pregnancy tumor of gums = Granuloma pyogenicum
46. RCC = Hypernephroma = Grawitz Tumor
47. Holly leaf mesangial deposits -- FSGN
48. Spike & Dome , String of Popcorn -- Membranous GN
49. Wire loop -- Class IV Lupus Nephritis
50. Post Mortem staining is well developed in 4 hrs and becomes fixed in 6-12 hrs
51 - 100 :
51. Three important syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches:
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS),
Oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome (AOVS) and
Auriculo-Condylar syndrome (ACS) or question mark ear syndrome.
52. Achlasia Cardia - uncoordinated, non-progressive contraction within the esophageal body
BUT The hallmark symptom of achalasia is progressive dysphagia.
53. The mandible is not part of the cranium nor part of the facial skeleton.
54. There are 2 things - Threshold level and a discriminatory level for the appearance of a gestational sac
The threshold level identifies the earliest one can expect to see a sac (4 weeks, 3 days), and
The discriminatory level identifies when one should always see the sac (5 weeks, 2 days).
55. Fluoroscopy is a real-time x-ray viewed on a video monitor, provides information about moving organs.
Examples include motion of the diaphragm or chest wall during respiration and left ventricular contraction during systole. During fluoroscopy, the patient can be turned obliquely, to eliminate overlapping of structures.
56. Digitalis toxicity is precipitated by HypoKalemia , but its manifestation is HyperKalemia.
58. The left pulmonary artery lies above the left main bronchus before passing posteriorly, whereas on
the right side the artery is anterior to the bronchus resulting in the right hilum being the lower.
59. Least CO2 -- in Anatomical Dead Space -- At the END Inspiratory Phase.
60. Central Chemoreceptors arenot sensitive to Hypoxia. 61.Middle genicular arterypierces the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee joint.
62. Among Benzodiazepine - Lorazepam causes the longest duration of antegrade amnesia.
63. Pressure relief valve is not required for Cyclopropane.
(Pressure relief valve is a mechanical device that eliminates system overpressure by allowing the
controlled or emergency escape of liquid or gas from a pressurized system. The relief valve may or may
not be adjustable.)
64. Each 1ml of O2 liquid -- 840 ml gas.
65. The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is often termed the Alderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve.
66. Failure of the sinus of His to obliterate that is believed to be the cause of the development of branchial cleft cysts, fistulas, or sinuses.
67. Red Ribbon -- Aids Awareness. Pink Ribbon -- Breast Cancer Awareness.
68. Father of Orthopaedics -- " Sir Nicholas Andre "
69. Blair's procedure -- Arthrodesis of ankle joint.
70. Darrach osteotomy -- done in Made Lung Deformity.
71. Partial or Complete loss of bone seen on X-Ray is Pathognomonic of Fracture.
72. Godfrey Hounsfield won the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for developing CT, shared with Allan M. McCormack.
73. The atypical ribs : 1st, 2nd, 11th, and 12th ribs.
74. Cuffed ET tube - Cuff pressure should never exceed 30 cm of H2O (preferably 25cm).
75. PVC - ET tubes use High Volume Low Pressure cuffs. (therefore suitable for long duration).
76. FDA approved Raxibacumab to treat " inhalational anthrax " - First monoclonal antibody approved
using the Animal Efficacy Rule.
77. Major carrier of Nitrogen by products from most tissues in the body is Glutamine.
78. Keloid is a result of an overgrowth of granulation tissue (collagen type 3) at the site of a healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1.
79. Median umbilical ligament is the remnant of the urachus, which joined the apex of the fetal bladder to the umbilicus.
80. Medial umbilical ligaments are formed by occluded parts of the Umbilical arteries.
81. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is the most common among Cholangiocarcinomas.
82. Maximum content of tryglyceride is found in- Chylomicrons
83. Maximum content of Exogenous tryglyceride is found in-Chylomicrons
84. Maximum content of Endogenous tryglyceride is found in- VLDL
85. Maximum content of Cholesterol is found in- LDL
86. N2O can be Teratogenic
87. Central pontine myelinolysis seen with correction of hyponatremia.
88. Best test for Malignant Hyperthermia - "Caffeine-halothane contracture test".
89. Neuroaxial block - INR should be < 1.4.
90. Protein intake in ICU : 1 - 1.5 g/kg/day.
91. Most common ophthalmic complication during anaesthesia : Corneal abrasion.
92. History of Post dural puncture headache is NOT a contraindication of Epidural block.
93. Flat Capnogram
Dissociation of anaesthetic tube
Mechanical ventilation failing
94. O2 content of anaesthetic mixture : 33%
95. Preanaesthetic drug which causes longest amnesia : Lorazepalm
96. Anaesthetic with Least decrease in Systemic vascular resistance : Halothane
97. Malignant Hyperthermia :
98. Dextrose fluid is NEVER used for Resuscitation.
99. Opioid given as transdermal : Fentanyl
100. Drug of choice for Asystole and Cardiac arrest : Adrenaline
101 - 150 :
101. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex , leading to a buildup of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine)
102. The SMA lies to the left of the SMV as it crosses over the third portion of the duodenum. ( Clinical Importance : to check malrotation )
103. Meta-analysis is best for Probiotics' Trial.
104. Vertical crest in fundus of internal auditory canal is - Bill's Bar.
105. Sphincter of oddi has 3 sphincters.
106. Sheath surrounding the neurovascular bundle in axilla is derived from - Prevertebral fascia.
107. 1st part of duodenum has duodenal cap/bulb.
108. Spleen projects into Greater sac.
109. Axillary abscess is drained safely through Floor.
110. The primary direct stimulus for excitation of central chemoreceptors - H+ increase.
111. Breast Milk is Contraindicated in Galactosemia
112. If Mother Sputum +ve TB - Still give breast milk to baby ( with 6months course of 5mg/kg INH )
113. Mother with HIV - Never mix feed i.e give exclusive trophic feed or give expressed milk of other women )
114. Mother to Child transmission of HbsAg - Prevent by
HBIG within 12 hr of life
Vaccine on day 1 of life.
115. Anti HbsAb Protective Titre - > 10 mIU / ml
116. Liver biopsy in Alpha 1 anti-tripsin deficiency : PAS +ve and Diastase resistant granules
117. CMV : Intranuclear Owl eye inclusion bodies.
118. Nystagmus induced by Valsalva maneuver :
Superior Canal dehiscence syndrome
119. GABA is formed from Pyridoxine.
120. If pregnant lady shows Rubella antibody +ve : It means she is immune to rubella during her pregnancy and need not worry for rubella infection.
121. Various types of vasculitis produce aneurysms in many portions of the aorta and its branches, but Takayasu arteritis is the only type of aortitis that produces stenosis in the thoracic aorta.
(ref: Miller SM. Thoracic aortic diseases.)
122. Noonan Syndrome has Phenotype as that of Turner syndrome but Normal Karyotype (XX or XY).
123. Earliest disease for which enzyme supplementation / replacement therapy introduced - Gaucher's disease.
124. 1st disease for which Gene therapy introduced - SCID
125. The dystrophin gene is the largest gene found in nature.
126. Down's syndrome in a baby of young mother is most commonly due to - Robertsonian translocation , not trisomy.
139. DNA replication occurs during S phase of the cell cycle.
140. Rise in conjugated (direct) bilirubin seen in Rotor syndrome and Dubin–Johnson syndrome.
141. BP 120/80 is HTN in child <12yrs.
142. Sodium nitropuruside should not be given for >72hrs - else thiocynate toxicity will occur.
143. Sodium nitropuruside and Lineazolid are sensitive to light.
144. In PSVT , QRS is normal and P wave is either absent or inverted.
145. Wheeze/Rhonchi - whistling sound - means air trapped in bronchioles : Seen in
Bronchiolitis ( < 2year old )
146. Klinefelter syndrome is usually not be diagnosed until puberty.
147. NADPH oxidase deficient in chronic granulomatous disease of childhood.
148. Rhabdomyoma (benign cardiac tumor) is associated with tuberous sclerosis.
149. Type I thyroplasty is used for Medialization of cord.
150. Vitamin K dependent coagulation factors are
protein C and S
151 - 200 :
151. Sitting Duck shaped Heart is seen in Persistant Truncus Arteriosus.
152. Sherman paradox is seen in Fragile X syndrome. (It is Anticipation phenomenon in Fragile X syn)
153. Trethowans sign is positive in slipped femoral epiphysis.
Normally : If an anteroposterior view of the hip joint is taken then a line drawn along the superior surface of the neck should pass through the femoral head. ( This line is Klein's Line ) If the line remains superior to the femoral head then this is termed Trethowans sign.
154. Amrinone and Milrinone - Side effect - Thrombocytopenia.
155. In PSVT (Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia), QRS is normal.
156. DOC for typical absence seizures: Ethosuximide
157. DOC for atypical absence seizures: Valproate
158. Hyperventilation provokes absence seizures.
159. Ring enhancing lesion on CECT Brain - think about NCC and Tuberculomas.
160. JME (juvenile myoclonic epilepsy) never shows complete remission.
161. Physiologically both hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in lactating breast.
162. Balthazar score / CT severity index is used for Grading Acute Pancreatitis.
163. Physiological umbilical hernia can be seen in 1st trimester ( < 12wks ) and does not persist in 2nd trimester.
164. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is seen in both Rotor syndrome and Dubin–Johnson syndrome but DJS has Black pigmentation of liver.
165. Most radiosensitive layer of retina - Rods and cones.
166. Most radioresistant layer of retina - Ganglion cell layer.
167. Ocular dendritic cells have HLA 2.
168. Transport of ascorbic acid to lens is done by myoinositol.
169. In PCOD : E1 increases (because of peripheral conversion of androgens) but E2 is normal.
170. Severe pancreatitis is said to be present if there is necrosis within the pancreas. Hence it is also known as necrotizing pancreatitis.
171. Coast of california sign is seen in neurofibromatosis.
172. Hyppocampus and amygdala are very sensitive to hypoxia. Therefore if exposed to hypoxia, they die after 30 mins.
173. Among causes of neonatal seizures, Late onset hypocalcemia has best prognosis.
174. Sweaty feet odor : Glutaric acidemia type II , Isovaleric acidemia. (Isovaleric acidemia also Cheesy odor)
175. MC cause of pancreatic calcifications - Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.
176. MC complication after lens extraction in PHPV is vitreous hemorrhage.
177. Adenocarcinomas do not calcify.
178. Forgotten muscle of rotator cuff - Subscapularis.
179. Rett syndrome is characterized by Microcephaly.
180. Inferior border of orbit is formed by contribution from maxilla , palatine and zygomatic bones.
181. Odor of urine for hypermethioninemia - boiled cabbage. Also Cabbage odor - in Tyrosinaemia
182. Lead toxicity - Purely motor neuropathy.
183. Malnourished child is Sodium overloaded and Potassium depleted - hence use ReSoMal (Rehydration solution for malnourished)
184. GFR of a newborn is 15 - 20ml/min/1.73m2
At 3 months - it is 2/3 rd of Adult
Adult Values at 2years age.
185. Newborn's renal tubular concentration capacity reaches adult value at 1year of age.
186. Best method of estimating creatinine is Enzyme assay.
187. Oliguria is important sign of Renal failure. Causes of Non-Oliguric Renal failure -
In Newborns ,
188. Total number of nephrons reaches adult value at 36 wks Intrauterine gestation. Thus after birth , there is only functional maturity.
189. In a child with CRF , if Acidosis and hyperphosphatemia is present , then these must be corrected first before introducing Growth hormone. (GH does not act if acidosis and increased Po4 are present)
190. Membranous glomerulonephritis has been associated with Renal vein thrombosis.
191. Lead pipe appearance of colon is seen in Ulcerative colitis.
192. Tomcat urine smell is associated to multiple carboxylase deficiency.
193. Caplan's syndrome is Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) + Pneumoconiosis.
194. Most common organism for UTI is E.Coli
195. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is only treated during pregnancy
196. Best urine sample for 8 month old girl is by SupraPubic catheterization (even a single colony is UTI with this sample)
197. IOC for VesicoUretric reflux is MCU (Micturating cystourethrography) = VCUG (Voiding cystourethrography )
198. Cranberry juice prevents UTI (because of its ant-adhesion property)
199. IOC for Posterior urethral valve -> MCU = VCUG
200. Pulmonary fibrosis in longstanding cases of Ankylosing spondylitis usually involves upper lobe.
201 - 250 :
201. Most common site of iatrogenic esophageal perforation is Cricopharynx ( as its the narrowest part of GIT , with exception of vermiform appendix )
202. Important 25 cm structures :
203. Accordion sign is seen with pseudomembranous colitis.
204. Most commonly symptomatic Plica is Medial Patellar plica.
Plica is embryological remnant of synovial membrane at patello-femoral joint.
205. The commonest cause of anterior knee pain is softening of the cartilage on the underside of the patella = Chondromalacia patella = Patellofemoral syndrome.
206. Most common congenital anomaly of urinary tract is Duplex collecting system.
207. Central dot sign is seen in Caroli disease.
208. The bear's paw sign is seen in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
209. Coins in the oesophagus are oriented in the coronal plane whereas coins in the trachea are oriented sagittally.
210. Portomesenteric vein gas is most commonly caused by mesenteric ischemia.
211. Garland's triad (also known as the 1-2-3 sign) is suggestive of thoracic sarcoidosis.
212. The marginal vein of Servelle is pathognomonic for Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.
213. Castellvi classification is used for Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae (LSTV).
214. Kohler disease - avascular necrosis of the navicular bone.
215. Kienbock disease - avascular necrosis of lunate.
216. Lateral end of clavicle appears at 5 wks intra-uterine life, Medial end of clavicle appears at 15 years of life.
217. Ball on tee sign - seen in papillary necrosis on IVU.
218. Metaphyseal blanch sign of Steel is seen in SCFE (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis)
219. Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) occur before the fusion of epiphysis and are usually metaphyseal in location.
220. Osteoid osteoma has male preponderance, cause night-pain that is relieved by Aspirin.
221. HMG-CoA-reductase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol metabolism.
222. Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells.
223. Hidebound bowel sign or the stack of coins - seen on barium study of small bowel in scleroderma.
224. Bigliani classification is used for acromion morphological types.
225. Climber's muscle - Latissmus dorsi.
226. Tailor’s muscle - Sartorius.
227. The endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm.
228. Crypts of Lieberkuhn are seen in Duodenum.
229. Corpora arenacea (or Brain sand) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain such as the choroid plexus.
230. Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are involved in myelin formation around axons in the CNS and peripheral nervous system, respectively.
231. Chief artery supplying breast - Lateral thoracic artery
232. Wheel within a wheel and Bull’s eye lesion is seen in hepatic ultrasound of - Liver candidiasis.
267. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and Brunner’s glands are seen in Duodenum.
268. Anorectal ring is formed by – Puborectalis, Internal anal sphincter and Deep external anal sphincter. (Mnemonic PID or DIP )
269. Gantzer's muscles - accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus.
270. Last carpal bone to ossify is pisiform.
maximus: inferior gluteal nerve
medius and minimus: superior gluteal nerve
272. Piriformis - lateral rotator of thigh
273. Short head of biceps and coracobrachialis originate from tip of coracoid process.
274. Positive benzidine test in : Hemoglobin and Myoglobin
275. Drug that increases QT interval - Amiodarone, Ebastine, Sotatol
276. SIADH is euvolemic hypoosmolality with increased Urine Na+ , Urine osmolality
277. Muscles related to eustachian tube - Tensor veli palatini, Levator veli palatini and Salpingopharyngeus.
278. Brain cells sensitivity to hypoxia :Neurons > Oligodendrocytes > Astrocytes > Endothelial cells
Among Neurons most sensitive are - Pyramidal cells in area CA1 of hippocampus - known as Sommer's sector.
279. Stratosphere sign on M - mode ultrasound - suggests Pneumothorax.
280. Killian’s dehiscence (also known as gateway of tears) - Between thyropharyngeus and cricopharyngeus.
281. Nucleus ambiguus - cranial nerves IX, X and XI.
282. Black pleural sign - Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis
283. Nernst potential across cell membrane :
for K+ ion is -90 mV
for Na+ ion is +60 mV
for Cl- ion is -70 mV
284. Small cell Ca of lung is most common variety of lung cancer associated with paraneoplastic syndrome.
285. Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles - rapidly adapting (phasic) receptors. Merkel cells and Ruffini endings - slowly adapting (tonic) receptors.
348. Porencephalic cyst is lined by white matter whereas arachnoid cyst is lined by grey matter.
349. Dandy-Walker variant can not be diagnosed before the 18th week of gestation because the inferior vermis is not formed at this time.
350. Most consistent pathological finding in chronic bronchitis - hypertrophy of mucous secreting glands of bronchi.
351 - 400 :
351. Causes of Apple core sign femur
synovial chondromatosis (Most common)
pigmented villonodular synovitis
352. Anterior tibial translation/translocation > 7mm is highly suggestive of Anterior cruciate ligament tear.
353. Laryngo-tracheo bronchitis or croup is the commonest cause of tracheal narrowing.
354. Most common primary malignant tumor of parotid gland - Mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
355. Type 3 accessory navicular bone - is called a cornuate navicular.
356. Myoinositol concentrations in brain are abnormally increased in patients with demyelinating disease and alzheimer's. Detected by MR spectriscopy.
357. Morel Lavalle lesion - degloving injury in severe trauma resulting in abrupt separation of the skin and subcutaneous fatty tissue from the underlying fascia.
358. Overproduction of protein and lipid rich material from Type II pneumocytes which is not cleared by lungs - leads to Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.
359. Subpleural lucent line - seen in Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis Subpleural linear opacities - seen in Asbestosis.
360. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is indistinguishable to lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis but Chylothorax and chyloperitoneum are common in LAM.
361. Trilateral retinoblastoma
bilateral retinoblastoma and
intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor ( pineal or suprasellar )
362. T-shaped uterus : seen in cases of in-utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.
363. Intra-aortic baloon pumps are used in patients with cardiogenic shock.
Ideally placed just distal to left subclavian artery origin.
364. Left lower lobe basal atelactasis is frequently seen in patients with heart transplantation.
365. Right upper lobe bronchus arising from trachea is called - PIG bronchus.
366. Congenital lobar emphysema is a misnomer as there is no alveolar wall destruction.
It is better termed as Congenital lobar overinflation.
MC affects Left upper lobe of lung (43% cases)
367. Most common location of bronchogenic cyst is : Mediastinal - carinal.
368. Most common location for Intralobar pulmonary sequestration : Medial left lower lobe.
369. Leiomyoma of oesophagus affects lower 2/3rd as this part has smooth muscle.
370. Double pyloric canal - seen when gastric antral ulcer fistulate to the duodenal cap.
371. Metastases to thyroid gland is rare. Most common metastases to thyroid is from MELANOMA.
372. Most important point of differentiation between extradural hematoma (EDH) and subdural hematoma (SDH) - Is the ability of SDH to cross the suture lines whereas EDH does not cross suture line.
Though EDH is usually biconvex and SDH is usually concavo-convex BUT It is important to remember that even SDH can be biconvex.
373. Most common site of gastrointestinal lymphoma - Stomach.
374. The dripping candle wax sign or flowing candle wax is described in Melorheostosis which demonstrates sclerotic cortical thickening.
375. Oesophageal varices - are Submocosal. Gastric varices - are Subserosal.
376. Double decidual sac sign helps to distinguish between an early intrauterine pregnancy and a pseudogestational sac.
It is formed by decidua parietalis and decidua capsularis which form two concentric rings around the true gestational sac.
377. Nuchal translucency > 3 mm between 10-14 wks gestation has significant association with chromosomal abonormality.
378. Syndromes ass. with omphalocele
pentalogy of Cantrell
379. USG signs of chorionicity
Lamda sign - Dichorionic twins
T sign - Monochorionic twins
380. With increase in kVp (keeping other factors constant), the radiation dose to patient increases. Radiation dose is directly proportional to square of kVp.
381. Most common leukaemia in downs syndrome - ALL
387. Goldblatt kidney - constriction of the renal artery - renal ischemia - release of renin - hypertension.
388. The superior anastomotic vein or Vein of Trolard drains the superficial middle cerebral vein into superior sagittal sinus.
389. The inferior anastomotic vein or Vein of Labbe drains the superficial middle cerebral vein into transverse sinus.
390. Chang’s sign - seen in pulmonary embolism - abrupt change in diameter of pulmonary artery.
391. Bouquet of flowers appearance = paintbrush appearance - seen in Medullary sponge kidney on IVP.
392.Gallbladder ghost triad - seen sonographically in Biliary atresia
atretic gallbladder length <19 mm,
thin or absent mucosal lining or indistinct wall,
irregular gallbladder contour
393. Triangular cord sign : Sonographic sign showing > 4mm thickness of echogenic anterior wall of the right portal vein (EARPV) in cases of Biliary Atresia.
394. Omental cake can be seen in Metastases (most common) from ovarian, gastric or colon cancer, Tuberculous peritonitis and Lymphoma.
395. Absence of swallow tail sign - Parkinson's disease.
396. Aphthous ulcers are seen in Crohn's disease. They are NEVER seen in Ulcerative colitis.
397. Lobster claw sign: seen in papillary necrosis.
398. Manta ray sign seen in bladder exstrophy.
399. Eye of tiger sign seen in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome.
400. Uterine choriocarcinoma can occur following molar pregnancy, abortion and even normal pregnancy.
401 - 450 :
401. Osteoporosis: decreased bone mass but normal mineralization. (Mineral to matrix ratio normal)
402. Osteomalacia: decreased rate of mineralization, hence increased quantity of non-calcified matrix. (Mineral to matrix ratio decreased)
403. MRI breast: In pre-menopausal women it should be performed between 7th-14th day (2nd week) after start of menstrual cycle, to avoid interference from normal enhancing breast tissue that may otherwise lead to false negative/positive results.
404. Woven bone with osteoblastic rimming:
Ossfying fibromas (=osteofibrous dysplasia)
405. Woven bone without osteoblastic rimming: Fibrous dysplasia
406. Gamekeeper thumb = skier thumb: tear of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb (at 1st metacarpophalyngeal joint)
407. Colles fracture: extra-articular distal radius fracture with dorsal angulation
with Multiple subcutaneous hemangiomas = Maffucci syndrome
440. McCune-Albright syndrome
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
Cafe au lait spots
441. MRI - Gadolinium contrast is used (when needed). In patients with renal failure, it may cause Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis - plaques of skin (firm, indurated and erythematous) with subcutaneous oedema.
442. Air bronchograms can be seen in alveolar pathologies:
Hyaline membrane disease
443. Pneumatocele can be seen in
Staphylococcal and klebsiella pneumonia
444. Viral and mycoplasma pneumonia gives interstitial pattern. No alveolar exudates are seen.
445. Hydatid cyst:
Ultrasound: Cart wheel appearance
in Lungs it does not calcify
Chest X-ray: if contained rupture - water lily sign
Note: Drooping lily sign is seen on IVP in duplex collecting system with upper moiety obstruction
446. Egg in cup:
calyces: Papillary necrosis
heart: constrictive pericarditis
447. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) has high Kupffer cells and takes up technetium 99m sulphur colloid.
448. In Blunt trauma cases:
Ideal and gold standard investigation: Contrast enhanced CT (CECT)
If haemodynamically unstable/1st Investigation: FAST (Focused assessment sonography in trauma)
449. Beaded appearance in Renal artery/Internal carotid/External Iliac: Fibromuscular dysplasia
450. Only Veins (hepatic and portal) form basis of division of couinaud segments of the liver.
451. Periampullary carcinoma: Double duct sign
452. Carcinoma head of pancreas: Barium study - Widening of C loop of duodenum.
453. Down's syndrome: Antenatal ultrasound
Increased Nuchal Translucency >3mm (between 11.3 to 13.6 weeks gestation)
Not to be confused with Nuchal fold thickness which is taken between 18 to 22 weeks of gestation
Absent / Hypoplastic Nasal bone
454. Ostium secundum is the Most common type of ASD,
but in Down's syndrome - Ostium Primum.
455. Pancreatits: Investigation
Acute pancreatits: CECT is best
Chronic Pancreatitis: ERCP best, shows chain of lakes
456. Vertebral collapse
Normal IV disc
Adult - Multiple myeloma , Metastasis
Child - Histiocytosis
Reduced IV disc - Pott's spine
457. Most commonly PET scan uses 18 FDG
In myocardial perfusion - PET uses Rubidium 82
458. Bone infarct / Avascular necrosis - Best test is MRI
459. Vaginal epithelium is derived from endoderm of the urogenital sinus.
460. Half life of 18-FDG is 110 mins.