Ketamine (Phencyclidine derivative):
Dissociative anaesthesia i.e dissociates thalamus from limbic system.
Metabolized in Liver to Nor-Ketamine (this also has anaesthetic potency)
- Increase HR, BP and Cardiac Output. (Therefore DOC for Hypovolumic shock patients)
- Myocardial O2 demand increases -- therefore avoid in Ishaemic heart disease , Hypertention and aortic aneurysm.
Respiratory system :
- Minimal effect
- Potent Bronchodialator (therefore agent of choice in Asthma)
- Maintain upper airway reflex (therefore DOC for Full stomach patients)
- increases salivation (thus Anticholinergics are given to reduce this)
- Increase cerebral O2 consumption (therefore contraindicated in Space occupying lesion and Head injury)
- Increases ICT
- causes hallucinations (decreased by BZDs)
- causes increase in IntraOccular Pressure (therefore Contraindicated in Glaucoma patients)
- NDMR are potentiated by ketamine.
Strongly analgesic. Therefore - Other uses:
- Field Anaesthesia
- Short surgical procedures
- Burn dressings
Blue Colour : USE
Red Colour : NOT