0 Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)

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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital malformation (birth defect) of the diaphragm. The most common type of CDH is a Bochdalek hernia; other types include Morgagni's hernia, diaphragm eventration and central tendon defects of the diaphragm. Malformation of the diaphragm allows the abdominal organs to push into the chest thereby impeding proper lung formation.
CDH is a life-threatening pathology in infants, and a major cause of death due to two complications: pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension.
Bochdalek hernia
The Bochdalek hernia, also known as a postero-lateral diaphragmatic hernia, is the most common manifestation of CDH, accounting for more than 95% of cases.In this instance the diaphragm abnormality is characterized by a hole in the postero-lateral corner of the diaphragm which allows passage of the abdominal viscera into the chest cavity. The majority of Bochdalek hernias (80-85%) occur on the left side of the diaphragm, a large proportion of the remaining cases occur on the right side, and a small fraction are bilateral i.e., left and right sided defects.
Morgagni's hernia
This rare anterior defect of the diaphragm is variably referred to as Morgagni’s, retrosternal, or parasternal hernia. Accounting for approximately 2% of all CDH cases, it is characterised by herniation through the foramina of Morgagni which are located immediately adjacent to the xiphoid process of the sternum.The majority of hernias occur on the right side of the body and are generally asymptomatic; However newborns may present with respiratory distress at birth similar to Bochdalek hernia. Additionally, recurrent chest infections and gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported in those with previously undiagnosed Morgagni's hernia. In asymptomatic individuals laparoscopic surgical repair is still recommended as they are at risk of a strangulated intestine.

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