441. MRI - Gadolinium contrast is used (when needed). In patients with renal failure, it may cause Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis - plaques of skin (firm, indurated and erythematous) with subcutaneous oedema.
442. Air bronchograms can be seen in alveolar pathologies:
- Pulmonary edema
- Hyaline membrane disease
- Bronchoalveolar carcinoma
443. Pneumatocele can be seen in
- Staphylococcal and klebsiella pneumonia
- Hydrocarbon poisoning
444. Viral and mycoplasma pneumonia gives interstitial pattern. No alveolar exudates are seen.
445. Hydatid cyst:
- Ultrasound: Cart wheel appearance
- in Lungs it does not calcify
- Chest X-ray: if contained rupture - water lily sign
- Note: Drooping lily sign is seen on IVP in duplex collecting system with upper moiety obstruction
- calyces: Papillary necrosis
- heart: constrictive pericarditis
448. In Blunt trauma cases:
- Ideal and gold standard investigation: Contrast enhanced CT (CECT)
- If haemodynamically unstable/1st Investigation: FAST (Focused assessment sonography in trauma)
449. Beaded appearance in Renal artery/Internal carotid/External Iliac: Fibromuscular dysplasia
450. Only Veins (hepatic and portal) form basis of division of couinaud segments of the liver.