0 Anatomy AI 2011

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All are seen in injury to common peroneal nerve except?
A. Loss of sensation over sole
B. Foot drop
C. Injury to neck of fibula
D. Loss of dorsiflexion of toe

ANSWER:
Answer: Loss of sensation over sole



All of the following are pneumatic bones except?
A. Frontal
B. Ethmoid
C. Mandible
D. Maxilla


ANSWER:
Answer : Mandible



Which of the following is not supplied by the anterior division of mandibular nerve (V3) ?
A. Temporalis
B. Medial pterygoid
C. Lateral pterygoid
D. Masseter


ANSWER:
Answer: Medial pterygoid



Deoxygenated blood is not seen in
A. Pulmonary artery
B. Umbilical artery
C. Umbilical vein
D. Renal vein
ANSWER:
Answer – Umbilical vein

0 Onodi cells and Haller cells

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Onodi cells and Haller cells are associated with the following structures respectively?
A. Optic nerve and Orbital floor
B. Optic nerve and Internal carotid artery
C. Internal carotid artery and Optic nerve
D. Orbital floor and Internal carotid artery

ANSWER:
Answer : Optic nerve and orbital floor

0 Pain sensation from the ethmoid sinus

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Pain sensation from the ethmoid sinus is carried by :
A. Frontal nerve
B. Lacrimal nerve
C. Nasociliary nerve
D. Infraorbital nerve

ANSWER:
Answer: Nasociliary nerve

0 Trunk of brachial plexus (AI 2011)

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Which among the following is a branch from the trunk of brachial plexus?
A. Suprascapular nerve
B. Long thoracic nerve
C. Anterior thoracic nerve
D. Nerve to subclavius
ANSWER:
Answer : Suprascapular nerve and Nerve to subclavius

0 Development of diapragm

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AI 2011
Q.Diaphragm develops from all except:
A. Septum transversum
B. Dorsal mesocardium
C. Pleuroperitoneal membrane
D. Cervical myotomes

ANSWER:
Ans: B..


0 Posterior relations of head of pancreas (AI2011)

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Q.Posterior relations of head of pancreas are all except?
A. Common bile duct
B. First part of duodenum
C. Right crus of diaphragm
D. Inferior vena cava
ANSWER:
Ans: B.. First part of duodenum

2 TENNIS RACKET CELLS

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Q. TENNIS RACKET CELLS are seen in

a. sarcoma botryoides
b. vaginal adenocarcinoma
c.leiomyoma uterus
d.seminoma


ANSWER:
Ans: A. sarcoma botryoides = Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma.
• An uncommon, highly malignant vaginal tumor consisting of embryonal rhabdomyoblasts in infants & children.

• The tumor cells are small, have oval nuclei, & have small protrusions of cytoplasm from one end (tennis-racket cells)

0 Michaelis-Gutmann bodies

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Q. Michaelis-Gutmann bodies are seen in :
a. Calcifying epithilioma
b. Malakoplakia
c. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
d. Nephrocalcinosis


ANSWER:
Ans: B. Malakoplakia
Michaelis-Gutmann bodies (M-G bodies) are concentrically layered basophilic inclusions found in the urinary tract. They are 2 to 10 μm in diameter, and are thought to represent remnants of phagosomes mineralized by iron and calcium deposits.
M-G bodies are a pathognomonic feature of malakoplakia, an inflammatory condition that affects the genitourinary tract.

1 Frasier syndrome

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Frasier syndrome


is XY females with gonadal dysgenesis, progressive glomerulopathy (FSGS), and a significant risk of gonadoblastoma.


Mutations in the donor splice site in intron 9 of the Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene have been shown to cause Frasier syndrome and are distinct from WT1 exon mutations associated with Denys-Drash syndrome.


The WT1 gene, which is essential for normal kidney and gonadal development, encodes a zinc finger transcription factor.


 It is proposed that the clinical definition of Frasier syndrome should be broadened to include 46,XX females with normal genital development and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with a WT1 intron 9 donor splice site mutation. Nephrologists need to consider the possibility of this heritable syndrome in evaluation of females with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and to consider their risk for gonadal malignancy, as well as the risk for kidney disease, gonadal dysgenesis, and malignancy in their offspring.




Do not confuse it with Fraser syndrome (AR congenital inheritance): It is characterized by developmental defects including cryptophthalmos (where the eyelids fail to separate in each eye), and malformations in the genitals (such as micropenis, cryptorchidism or clitoromegaly). Congenital malformations of the nose, ears, larynx and renal system, as well as mental retardation, manifest occasionally.  Syndactyly (fused fingers or toes) has also been noted in some cases.







0 Denys-Drash syndrome and Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

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Denys-Drash syndrome is a syndrome characterized by the following conditions:
  • gonadal dysgenesis
  • nephropathy
  • Wilms tumor

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder present at birth characterized by an increased risk of childhood cancer and certain features.

Five common features used to define BWS are: macroglossia, macrosomia - (birth weight and length >90th percentile), midline abdominal wall defects (omphalocele, umbilical hernia, diastasis recti), ear creases or ear pits, and neonatal hypoglycemia (low blood sugar after birth).

Children with BWS are much more likely (~600 times more) than other children to develop certain childhood cancers, particularly Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma) and hepatoblastoma.








0 Pawn ball megakaryocytes

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Q. Pawn ball megakaryocytes are characteristic of:


1.myelodysplastic syndrome.
2.idiopathic trombocytopenic purpura.
3.thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
4.chloramphenicol toxicity.

ANSWER:
Ans : 1. MDS(myelodysplastic syndrome)
These are very small megakaryocytes.
Normally Megakaryocytes are very large and never seen in P/S.



0 Hamodalysis associated amyloid

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Q. Hamodalysis associated amyloid is deposited in
a. Synovium
b. Liver
c. Kidney
d. Tongue



ANSWER:
Ans: A.. Synovium.
The inability of both cuprophane dialysis
membranes to filter, and renal failure patients to catabolize
the plasma protein Beta-2 microglobulin, results in the accumulation
and subsequent conversion of this substance to
amyloid fibrils. Amyloid is deposited predominantly in the
musculoskeletal system in synovial, articular and periarticular
tissue, resulting in a variety of conditions.

0 Pearson syndrome

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Pearson syndrome is a mitochondrial disease characterized by
sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction.

It is usually fatal in infancy. The few patients who survive into adulthood often develop symptoms of Kearns-Sayre syndrome.

It is caused by a deletion in mitochondrial DNA. Pearson syndrome is very rare, less than hundred cases have been reported in medical literature worldwide.



3 Amyloidosis of spleen

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Types of Amyloidosis of spleen
  • Sago spleen 
  • Lardaceous spleen


SoFt  LiPs
Sago spleen - Amyloid deposits in lymph Follicles
Lardaceous spleen - Amyloid deposits in the Red Pulp


Amyloid deposition in lymph follicles --" sago spleen“
Amyloid deposition in the red pulp--" lardaceous spleen"



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