0 Action of medial and lateral pterygoid muscles

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Medial pterygoid closes your mouth - When you say "M" you have to close your mouth.

Lateral pterygoid opens your mouth - When you say "L" you have to open your mouth.



0 Chilaiditi syndrome

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Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare condition when pain occurs due to transposition of a loop of large intestine (usually transverse colon) in between the diaphragm and the liver, visible on plain abdominal X-ray or chest X-ray
Normally this causes no symptoms, and this is called Chilaiditi's sign. The sign can be permanently present, or sporadically. This anatomical variant is sometimes mistaken for the more serious condition of having air under the diaphragm (pneumoperitoneum) which is usually an indication of bowel perforation. This may lead to unnecessary surgical interventions.
Chilaiditi syndrome refers only to complications in the presence of Chilaiditi's sign. These include abdominal pain, torsion of the bowel (volvulus) or shortness of breath.



Chest X-ray showing obvious Chilaiditi's sign, or presence of gas in the right colic angle between the liver and right hemidiaphragm.





0 Hamman's syndrome and sign

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Hamman's syndrome is a syndrome of spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema (air in the subcutaneous tissues of the skin) and pneumomediastinum (air in the mediastinum, the center of the chest cavity), sometimes associated with pain.
Hamman's syndrome can cause Hamman's sign.
The syndrome is caused by alveolar rupture and can be seen post partum.
It most commonly occurs in young women.



A CT scan showing air in the mediastinum with subcutaneous emphysema, which can result in Hamman's syndrome.


Hamman's sign (rarely, Hammond's sign or Hammond's crunch) is a crunching, rasping sound, synchronous with the heartbeat, heard over the precordium in spontaneous mediastinal emphysema produced by the heart beating against air-filled tissues.
 It has been described as a series of precordial crackles that correlate with the heart beat and not the respirations.

Hamman's crunch is caused by pneumomediastinum or pneumopericardium, and is associated with tracheobronchial injury due to trauma, medical procedures (e.g., bronchoscopy) or proximal pulmonary bleb rupture. It is commonly seen in Boerhaave syndrome.(also here there is Mackler triad)




source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamman's_sign
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamman%27s_syndrome

1 Tree in bud

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Q. Most common cause of tree in bud appearance on HRCT chest is?
a. Endobronchial spread TB
b. Haematogenously spread TB
c. Pneumocystis Carnii
d. RSV

ANSWER:
Ans : A.. endobronchial spread TB

NOTE: similar ques was asked in aiims nov. 2010 where the difference was that the patient had undergone bone marrow transplant and then showed this Tree In Bud appearance, so then the answer will be Pneumocystis carnii.


0 Circadian rhythm

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Q.Circadian rhythm by?

a.paraventricular nucleus
b.suprachiasmatic nucleus
c.pred.optic nucleus
d.arcuate nucleus


ANSWER:
ANS : B

0 Loop Diuretic

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Q.Site of action of loop diuretics?
a.Na-K channel inhibition
b.Na-K-2Cl channel inhibition
c.decreases sodium retention
d.increases ADH


ANSWER:
Ans : B

0 Kidney excretion

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Q. Drug exclusively excreted by Kidney?

a.Gallamine

b.Atracurium

c.Pancuronium

d.Rocuronium


ANSWER:
ANS : A.. Gallamine



MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Carcinoid Tumor

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Q.multiple lesions in liver,diarrhea and flushing seen in a patient. what is the most probable part where the lesion is located?
a.duodenum
b.stomach
c.appendix
d.small bowel

ANSWER:
ANS : D.. Small Bowel.
Unlike carcinoid tumours arising in
other parts of the intestinal tract, carcinoid tumour of the
appendix rarely gives rise to metastases

0 Leprosy

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Q. leprosy is seen in?
a.kidney,liver,spleen
b.ovaries,liver,spleen
c.ovaries,liver,kidney
d.testis,liver,spleen


ANSWER:
Ans : D
Leprous granulomas are known to occur frequently in
liver, spleen, testes but are rarely seen in kidneys

0 Wilson's Disease

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Q.True in Wilson's disease?
a.high plasma copper
b.low urinary copper
c.high copper levels in liver
d.high ceruloplasmin

ANSWER:
Ans : C
Laboratory tests measure the amount of copper in the blood, urine, and liver tissue. Most people with Wilson disease will have a lower than normal level of copper in the blood and a lower level of corresponding ceruloplasmin, a protein that carries copper in the bloodstream. In cases of acute liver failure caused by Wilson disease, the level of blood copper is often higher than normal. A 24-hour urine collection will show increased copper in the urine in most patients who display symptoms. A liver biopsy—a procedure that removes a small piece of liver tissue—can show if the liver is retaining too much copper. The analysis of biopsied liver tissue with a microscope detects liver damage, which often shows a pattern unique to Wilson disease.


0 Resistance to acyclovir

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Q.Resistance to acyclovir is treated with?
a.foscarnet
b.valacyclovir
c.famcyclovir
d.gancyclovir

ANSWER:

Ans: A--Fosarnet


0 Sustenticulum tali

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Q.Tendon passing below Sustenticulum tali is
a. Tibialis posterior
b. Tibialis anterior
c. Flexor Digitorum longus
d. Flexor Hallucis longus

ANSWER:
Ans: D
Flexor Digitorum longus crosses medial surface of Sustenticulum tali .


Q.Tendon attachments on Sustenticulum tali :
a. Tibialis posterior
b. Tibialis anterior
c. Flexor Digitorum longus
d. Flexor Hallucis longus

ANSWER:
Ans: A

0 Facts about 4th nerve

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Q. which of the following is not true about trochlear nerve
a. has longest intracranial course
b. supplies ipsilateral sup. oblique
c. arise from dorsal aspect
d. enters orbit through sup. orbital fissure outside annulus of zinn

ANSWER:
here answer clearly is option B because 4th nerve supplies contralateral sup. oblique..

Thus in AIIMS and ALL INDIA ans. for the longest inracranial course is 4th nerve only


0 Ultrasound Markers

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Ultrasound Markers/ Soft markers of chromosome abnormality

  1. Nuchal thickning
  2. Hyperechoic bowel
  3. Renal Pyelectasis
  4. Intra-cardiac echogenic foci
  5. Choroid plexus cysts

Denotes possibilities of fetal anomaly.


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