0 Fordyce

Reactions: 
Fox-Fordyce disease is an infrequently occurring chronic pruritic papular eruption that localizes to areas where apocrine glands are found.

Fordyce's spots are small, painless, raised, pale, red or white spots or bumps 1 to 3 mm in diameter that may appear on the shaft of the penis or on the labia, as well as the inner surface (retromolar mucosa) and vermilion border of the lips of the face. They are common in men and women of all ages.The spots are a form of ectopic sebaceous gland: normally, sebaceous glands are only found in association with a hair follicle.

0 Layers of skin

Reactions: 
Innermost layer  of epidermis?
a.S.corneum
b.S.spinosum
c.S.granulosum
d.S.germinatum


ANSWER:
ans:D
S.germinatum = S.basale




0 Spores

Reactions: 
Sexual: 
1. Ascospores
2. Basidiospores
3. Zygospores
Asexual
1. Arthospores
2. Blastospores
3. Chlamydospores
4. Micro n Macroconidia
5. Sporangiospores

0 Sexual Spore

Reactions: 
Which of the following is a sexual spore?
a. Ascospore
b. Arthrospore
c. Blastospore
d. Sporangiospore


ANSWER:
ans: A ascospore







2 Salt Split in Skin

Reactions: 


Immunofluorescence in salt split zone-

In Roof of salt split cavity:
eg. Bullous Pemphigoid , herpes gestationis , cicatrical pemphigoid , Linear IgA dermatosis.

In Floor of salt split cavity:
eg. EBA , EBD , BLE.





MedicoNotebook - Founder : DrShiviMudgal , Co-Founder : DrAyushGoel

0 Salt split zone immunofluorescence

Reactions: 
Immunofluorescence in floor of salt split cavity is seen in A/E:
a. EBA
b. EBD
c. BLE
d. LAD



ANSWER:
ans: D linear IgA dermatosis
explanation: In option D Immunofluorescence is seen in roof not floor of salt split cavity.
Salt split occurs at Lamina lucida.


0 Novobiocin resistant CONS

Reactions: 
Q.Novobiocin resistant CONS is :
A. Strep.Viridans
B. Staph. aureus
©. Staph epidermidis
D. Staph saprophyticus



ANSWER:
ans: D
explanation-- A,B are not CONS and all CONS except Staph saprophyticus are novobiocin susceptive.
Novobiocin is also known as albamycin or cathomycin.



0 Cause of Dementia (2nd MC)

Reactions: 
Dementia  
(2nd MC cause)  - Multi Infarct Dementia.
1st MC is Alzheimer' 

0 APGAR score

Reactions: 
components SHIRT:


Skin color: blue or pink
Heart rate: below 100 or over 100
Irritability (response to stimulation): none, grimace or cry
Respirations: irregular or good
Tone (muscle): some flexion or active

0 Extraocular muscles: movements

Reactions: 


"ObliqLiques cause lateral rotation of eyeball":
Obliques cause lateral, all other rectii are medial rotators of the eyeball.

Action of the obliques is opposite to their names.

Action of the rectii is rightly fitting to their names.

Both superiors cause intorsion and both inferiors cause extorsion


0 L4 landmark

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"B4U" [before you]:

Bifurcation of aorta
L4
Umbilicus


2 Vitamin Toxicity

Reactions: 


Excess vitamin A: Anomalies (teratogenic)
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)



0 Head circumference with age

Reactions: 

Remember 3, 9, and multiples of 5:


Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55 cm



0 WAGR syndrome

Reactions: 

WAGR syndrome: components WAGR

Wilm's tumor
Aniridia
Gential abnormalities
Mental Retardation


2 Ataxia-Telangiectasia

Reactions: 


common sign AT:
Absent
Thymus



0 Rotator cuff muscles

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"The SITS muscles":
Clockwise from top:
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis
A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he SITS out for the rest of the game, and then gets sent to the minor leagues.



0 Ossification centers of the elbow

Reactions: 



C - Capitellum
R - Radial head
I - Internal (medial epicondyle)
T - Trochlea
O - Olecranon
E - External (lateral epicondyle)
These appear at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 years of age in order and go away two years later



0 Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation

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"Water under the bridge":
The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery.

Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus.


0 Rheumatic fever

Reactions: 


 Jones 5 major criteria SPACE:

Subcutaneous nodules
Pancarditis
Arthritis
Chorea
Erythema Marginatum



0 Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

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Nucleus Tractus Solitarius i.e NTS

N- 9th nerve
T- 10th nerve
S- 7th nerve


0 Diaphragm apertures: spinal levels

Reactions: 


Aortic hiatus = 12 letters = T12
Oesophagus = 10 letters = T10
Vena cava = 8 letters = T8


0 Internal iliac artery: posterior branch

Reactions: 


PILS or SLIP

Posterior branch
Iliolumbar
Lateral sacral
Superior gluteal


0 Bartonella

Reactions: 
B.Bacilliformis---- oraya fever(sandfly as vector),
B.Quintana-------- trench fever(louse born),
B.Henselae------- cat-scratch disease.





0 MC in THROTTLING

Reactions: 
MC mode of murder with Hyoid bone fracture is THROTTLING

MC finding in neck in THROTTLING is Contusion of Neck Muscles ( not HYOID bone fracture)

0 Lithium toxicity (aipg2011)

Reactions: 
Q.Which of the following antihypertensive drugs is contraindicated in a patient on Lithium in order to prevent toxicity?
A. Diuretics
B. Beta blockers
C. Calcium channel blockers
D. Clonidine


ANSWER:
ans : A. diuretics


0 Blount’s disease(AIPG 2011)

Reactions: 
Q.Blount’s disease is:
A. Genu valgum
B. Genu varum
C. Genu recurvatum
D. Menisceal injury


ANSWER:
Ans : B. Genu varum


0 Superior oblique palsy (aipg2011)

Reactions: 
Q.Damage to Superior oblique nerve causes diplopia:
A. Horizontal and downward
B. Vertical and downward
C. Horizontal and upward
D. Vertical and upward


ANSWER:
Ans : B
Injury to the trochlear nerve cause weakness of downward eye movement with consequent vertical diplopia (double vision). The affected eye drifts upward relative to the normal eye, due to the unopposed actions of the remaining extraocular muscles.
As would be expected, the diplopia gets worse when the affected eye looks toward the nose – the contribution of the superior oblique muscle to downward gaze is greater in this position. Common activities requiring this type of convergent gaze are reading the newspaper and walking down stairs. Diplopia associated with these activities may be the initial symptom of a fourth nerve palsy.


0 MC cause Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Reactions: 
Most Common Cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia is 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency (then 11-)

0 Nobel Prize 2010

Reactions: 
Robert Edwards has been awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his IVF (human in-vitro fertilization) therapy - Edwards is known as the father of the test tube baby.

0 MC Congenital cardiac anomaly

Reactions: 
MC Congenital cardiac anomaly is VSD (membranous > muscular)

0 Vesico-Vaginal Fistula

Reactions: 
MC cause of VVF (vesicovaginal fistula)
in developing countries-Obstructed labour,
in developed countries-Malignancy

0 Increase in ECF k+

Reactions: 
Q.When extracellular k+ is increased from 4 meq to 10 meq what will happen?
a. RMP becomes more negative
b. increase in sodium conductance
c. increase in potassium conductance
d. Na-K ATP ase will be stopped



ANSWER:
ans: B
K+ increased in ECF , will decrease RMP , thereby increasing ecitability and thus increases ability of Na+ to move into the cell (increases its conductance)

0 AFP

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In normal fetuses, AFP binds the hormone estradiol. AFP is measured , in pregnant women using maternal blood or amniotic fluid, as a screening test for a subset of developmental abnormalities:
It is principally increased in open neural tube defects and omphalocoele & decreased in Down syndrome.

It is also measured in non-pregnant women, other adults, and children, serving as a biomarker to detect a subset of tumors.

In adults, levels over 500 nanograms/milliliter of AFP are seen in only three situations: Hepatocellular carcinoma, Germ cell tumors, and metastatic cancer in the liver originating from other primary tumors elsewhere.


0 Neurohormone

Reactions: 

A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neurons.

TRH
GnRH
Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone
Oxytocin
ADH
Epinephrine


0 Wiskott-Aldrich

Reactions: 
Elevated IgA levels n presence of thrombocytopenia
A.Job's syndrome
B.Wiskott-Aldrich
C.Carcinoid synd
D.Sjogren's


ANSWER:
Ans=B


Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked recessive disease characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), immune deficiency, and bloody diarrhea (secondary to the thrombocytopenia.
IgM levels are reduced, IgA and IgE are elevated, and IgG levels can be reduced or elevated


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